Objective: To determine if tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) in combination with Tamoxifen will improve breast cancer specific survival and recurrence free survival, in women with early breast cancer and estrogen receptor positive tumors.
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Non-randomized, double-blind
Subjects: Early Breast Cancer Patients
Intervention: Tocotrienol Rich Fraction, placebo plus tamoxifen
Primary Outcome: The primary end point was breast cancer specific survival, defined as the time from minimization to death due to breast cancer.
Secondary Outcome: The secondary end points included disease free survival, biochemical parameters, liver function and plasma levels of vitamin E.
Methodology: The study is a double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of TRF plus tamoxifen versus placebo plus tamoxifen in women with primary breast cancer for five years. Both the TRF and placebo drugs were prepared and supplied by Hovid Sdn Bhd, Malaysia. Hovid Sdn. Bhd. absolutely did not have any influence in the trial designing, patient recruitment, data collection, analysis and reporting. The placebo drug which contained soy oil without tocotrienols had similar appearance and taste as the TRF drug. A total of 240 women breast cancer patients were assigned to two groups by minimization method that balanced treatment groups. The intervention group was given TRF plus tamoxifen, (n = 120) while control group was given placebo plus tamoxifen, (n = 120).
Results: During the five years of study, 8 patients died due to breast cancer while 36 patients developed local or systemic recurrence. Five-yearbreast cancer specific survival was 98.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 95.9% to 100%) in the intervention group and 95%, (95% CI: 91.1% to 98.9%) in the control group, while 5-years disease free survival was 86.7% (95% CI: 80.6% to 92.8%) and 83.3% (95% CI: 76.6% to 90.0%), respectively. Risk of mortality due to breast cancer was 60% (HR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.08 to 2.05) lower in the intervention group versus the controls following adjustment for age, ethnicity, stage and lymph node status but this was not statistically significant. Adjuvant TRF therapy was not associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.43-1.65).
Conclusion: From the current study, there seems to be no association between adjuvant tocotrienol therapy and breast cancer specific survival in women with early breast cancer.