Particle Size Distribution and Chemical Composition of the Aerosolized Vitamin E Acetate

Vladimir B Mikheev, Theodore P Klupinski, Alexander Ivanov, Eric A Lucas, Erich D Strozier, Cory Fix

Aerosol Sci Technol . 2020;54(9):993-998. doi: 10.1080/02786826.2020.1783431. Epub 2020 Jul 7.


The recent e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) crisis led to hospitalization and death in US youth and young adults (Blount et al. 2020US FDA 2019). Most EVALI cases were apparently linked to the vaping of e-liquids that contained vitamin E acetate (VEA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Blount et al. 2020). At the same time, not all vapers who inhaled VEA- or THC-containing aerosol have developed EVALI symptoms, therefore other factors, such as an individual’s health status, differences in puffing behaviors, or types of vaping devices, may be important.

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Vitamin E as promising adjunct treatment option in the combat of infectious diseases caused by bacterial including multi-drug resistant pathogens – Results from a comprehensive literature survey

Minnja S Hartmann, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) . 2020 Nov 5. doi: 10.1556/1886.2020.00020. Online ahead of print.


The use of antibiotics has provoked an emergence of various multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Infectious diseases that cannot be treated sufficiently with conventional antibiotic intervention strategies anymore constitue serious threats to human health. Therefore, current research focus has shifted to alternative, antibiotic-independent therapeutic approaches. In this context, vitamin E constitutes a promising candidate molecule due to its multi-faceted modes of action. Therefore, we used the PubMed database to perform a comprehensive literature survey reviewing studies addressing the antimicrobial properties of vitamin E against bacterial pathogens including MDR bacteria. The included studies published between 2010 and 2020 revealed that given its potent synergistic antimicrobial effects in combination with distinct antibiotic compounds, vitamin E constitutes a promising adjunct antibiotic treatment option directed against infectious diseases caused by MDR bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In conclusion, the therapeutic value of vitamin E for the treatment of bacterial infections should therefore be investigated in future clinical studies.

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Ophthalmologic evaluation in vitamin-E deficiency: A case report

Daniele Sindaco, Francesca Cappelli, Aldo Vagge, Carlo E Traverso, Michele Iester

Eur J Ophthalmol . 2020 Nov 3;1120672120970112. doi: 10.1177/1120672120970112. Online ahead of print.


A 41-year-old woman has come to our attention complaining of decreased visual acuity and monocular diplopia associated with upper and lower limb hypoesthesia. Malabsorption syndrome with vitamin A and E deficiency developed after a bariatric biliopancreatic diversion. The clinical ophthalmological signs and symptoms improved after oral vitamin supplementation therapy. The past medical history is essential in the case of a patient complaining of visual symptoms compatible with vitamin deficiency in order to detect the cause and to start a prompt therapy to avoid irreversible neurological and visual sequelae. The clinical features of our case closely resemble other cases described in the literature of patients affected by vitamin A and E deficiency secondary to malabsorption syndrome.

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Assessing the Impact of Oil Types and Grades on Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Contents in Vegetable Oils with Chemometric Methods

Yunqi Wen, Lili Xu, Changhu Xue, Xiaoming Jiang, Zihao Wei

Molecules . 2020 Nov 1;25(21):E5076. doi: 10.3390/molecules25215076.


The consumption of vegetable oil is an important way for the body to obtain tocols. However, the impact of oil types and grades on the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in vegetable oils is unclear. In this study, nine types of traditional edible oils and ten types of self-produced new types of vegetable oil were used to analyze eight kinds of tocols. The results showed that the oil types exerted a great impact on the tocol content of traditional edible oils. Soybean oils, corn oils, and rapeseed oils all could be well distinguished from sunflower oils. Both sunflower oils and cotton seed oils showed major differences from camellia oils as well as sesame oils. Among them, rice bran oils contained the most abundant types of tocols. New types of oil, especially sacha inchi oil, have provided a new approach to obtaining oils with a high tocol content. Oil refinement leads to the loss of tocols in vegetable oil, and the degree of oil refinement determines the oil grade. However, the oil grade could not imply the final tocol content in oil from market. This study could be beneficial for the oil industry and dietary nutrition.

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Development and validation of HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of alpha-tocopherol (free or encapsulated) and cholesterol in semen cryopreservation media

Lamia Taouzinet, Sofiane Fatmi, Yasmina Salhi-Amrani, Malika Lahiani-Skiba, Mohamed Skiba, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada

Biomed Chromatogr . 2020 Oct 30;e5018. doi: 10.1002/bmc.5018. Online ahead of print.


High-performance chromatography method was developed and validated for essaying α-tocopherol and cholesterol in cryopreservation media. Chromatographic separation was performed on isocratic system, using a C-18 column. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of methanol: acetonitrile: water 68:28:4 (v/v/v), using a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and 20 μl injection volume, at a wavelength of 208 nm. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, accurate, precise and linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 over a wide concentration range of both analytes. Vitamin E and cholesterol presented limits of detection of 0.002 mg/ml, 0.026 mg/ml and limits of quantitation of 0.006 mg/ml, 0.086 mg/ml, respectively. This method shows simple, rapid, high precision and accuracy and offers the advantage of simultaneous assay of vitamin E and cholesterol (alone, in cyclodextrins complexes or in liposome loaded) on semen cryopreservation media.

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Vitamin E attenuates the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in mice

Liang Ruan, Peng Yang, Shuang-Ping Chen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu

Australas J Dermatol . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/ajd.13492. Online ahead of print.

Research Letter

Systemic sclerosis, is a progressive connective tissue disease characterised by extensive fibrosis and affects skin as well as various internal organs.1 Skin fibrosis, a highly recognised feature of systemic sclerosis, causes significant physical disability and psychological disorder but is difficult to treat.2 Recently, vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, has been demonstrated to exert anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in some fibrotic diseases.3-5 This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on skin fibrosis in bleomycin-induced mouse model of scleroderma and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

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γ- and δ-Tocotrienols interfere with senescence leading to decreased viability of cells

Maria Janubova, Jozef Hatok, Katarina Konarikova, Ingrid Zitnanova

Mol Cell Biochem . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1007/s11010-020-03954-w. Online ahead of print.


Senescence is an irreversible permanent cell cycle arrest accompanied by changes in cell morphology and physiology. Bioactive compounds including tocotrienols (vitamin E) can affect important biological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate how γ- and δ-tocotrienols can affect stress-induced premature senescence. We established two different models of premature stress senescence by induction of senescence with either hydrogen peroxide or etoposide in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 (ECACC, England). We observed increased percentage of cells with increased SA-β-galactosidase activity, decreased cell viability/proliferation and increased level of p21 in both models. In addition, γ-tocotrienol or δ-tocotrienol (both at concentrations of 150, 200 and 300 μM) were added to the cells along with the inductor of senescence (cotreatment). We have found that this cotreatment led to the decrease of cell viability/proliferation in both models of premature stress senescence, but did not change the percentage of senescent cells. Moreover, we detected no expression of caspase-3 or apoptotic DNA fragmentation in any models of premature stress senescence after the cotreatment with γ- as well as δ-tocotrienols. However, an increased level of autophagic protein LC-3 II was detected in cells with hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence after the cotreatment with γ-tocotrienol as well as δ-tocotrienol. In case of etoposide-induced senescence only δ-tocotrienol cotreatment led to an increased level of LC-3 II protein in cells. According to our work δ-tocotrienol is more effective compound than γ-tocotrienol.

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Changes in vitamin E levels as a marker of female infertility

Mussarat Ashraf, Fatima Mustansir, Syed Mujtaba Baqir, Faiza Alam, Rehana Rehman

J Pak Med Assoc . 2020 Oct;70(10):1762-1766. doi: 10.5455/JPMA.40329.


Objective: To study the impact of Vitamin E (VE) levels of follicular fluid (FF) on oocyte competence, embryo development and pregnancy outcome in patients after intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples in which follicular fluid of 137 females booked for ICSI, was obtained during oocyte retrieval, centrifuged and stored for analysis. VE levels in FF were analyzed by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC)was used to demarcate VE levels required for acquiring pregnancy. Generalized linear model using log binomial regression was applied to see the effect of VE on pregnancy, the effect of VE on oocyte and embryo parameters was assessed by linear regression; all p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: ROC suggested 5.49 (unit) as the cutoff value of VE in the pregnancy group, with 72.9% area under the curve. Ninety-one females comprised Group I with VE > 5.49, whereas forty six females formed Group II with VE < 5.49. Follicular fluid VE levels were significantly high in 39 (28.5%) females who compromised pregnancy group. Chances of pregnancy increased to 4% with an increase in VE levels (p-value 0.01). VE gave significant positive relationship with all oocyte (retrieved, mature and fertilized) parameters, cleavage of embryo till its differentiation to blastocysts (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Adequate amount of VE in follicular fluid enhances the possibility of maturation of oocytes which resulted in better reproductive outcome after ICSI.

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Achiote (Bixa orellana) Lipophilic Extract, Bixin, and δ-tocotrienol Effects on Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

Darío R Gómez-Linton, Silvestre Alavez, Arturo Navarro-Ocaña, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Luis Pinzón-López, Laura J Pérez-Flores

Planta Med . 2020 Oct 29. doi: 10.1055/a-1266-6674. Online ahead of print.


The onset of many degenerative diseases related to aging has been associated with a decrease in the activity of antistress systems, and pharmacological interventions increasing stress resistance could be effective to prevent the development of such diseases. Achiote is a valuable source of carotenoid and tocotrienols, which have antioxidant activity. In this work, we explore the capacity of an achiote seed extract and its main compounds to modulate the lifespan and antistress responses on Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as the mechanisms involved in these effects. Achiote lipophilic extract, bixin, and δ-tocotrienol were applied on nematodes to carry out lifespan, stress resistance, and fertility assays. The achiote seed extract increased the median and maximum lifespan up to 35% and 27% and increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stresses without adverse effects on fertility. The beneficial effects were mimicked by a bixin+δ-tocotrienol mixture. All the effects on lifespan and stress resistance were independent of caloric restriction but dependent on the insulin/insulin growth factor-1 pathway. This study could provide insights for further research on a new beneficial use of this important crop in health and nutraceutical applications beyond its use as a source of natural pigments.

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Negative Correlation Between Vitamin A and Positive Correlation Between Vitamin E and Inflammation Among Healthy Adults in Korea: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016-2018 7th Edition

Ki-Hong Hong, Young Lee

J Inflamm Res . 2020 Oct 29;13:799-811. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S265856. eCollection 2020.


Purpose: Vitamins exert its effect through different isoforms. The isoform conversion phases involved are affected outside factors. Here, we investigated the correlation between serum retinol, α-tocopherol, and serum inflammatory markers using stratified data acquired from 2016 to 2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Materials and methods: This study was based on data acquired from the 7th edition (2016-2018) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, consisting of survey data on smoking and alcohol drinking, serum retinol level, serum α-tocopherol level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and baseline characteristics.

Results: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in alcohol drinking men. There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in the alcohol-nonsmoking female group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking female group. There was positive correlation between vitamin A and E and metabolic syndrome. The lowest vitamin A level was observed in subjects with all five metabolic syndrome criteria matched.

Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP and positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP. Absorption and secretion of serum retinol are affected by inflammation status through retinol-binding protein. Alcohol acts as a competitive inhibitor of vitamin A oxidation through alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH activity. Smoking causes inflammation and induces reactive oxygen species scavenging system and increases cytochrome p450 levels. These factors may have contributed to the observed findings. Metabolic syndrome subjects increased as the levels of vitamin A and vitamin E increased. Since obesity is inversely related to ALDH activity, we postulate that patients with metabolic syndrome may also have low ALDH activity, especially in the Asian population. Future studies are warranted to study the efficacy of ALDH or ALDH inducers in patients with vitamin A deficiency or metabolic syndrome.

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