The Role of Vitamin E in Thermal Burn Injuries, Infection, and Sepsis: A Review

Marc A Thompson, Kameel Zuniga, Linda Sousse, Robert Christy, Jennifer Gurney

J Burn Care Res . 2022 Jul 21;irac100. doi: 10.1093/jbcr/irac100. Online ahead of print


Thermal burn injuries are still a serious public health concern in the United States, due to the initial insult and resulting co-morbidities. Burned patients are increasingly susceptible to colonization by endogenous and exogenous micro-organisms after having lost skin, which acts as the primary protective barrier to environmental contaminants. Furthermore, the onset of additional pathophysiologies, specifically sepsis, becomes more likely in burned patients compared to other injuries. Despite improvements in the early care of burn patients, infections, and sepsis, these pathophysiologies remain major causes of morbidity and mortality and warrant further investigation of potential therapies. Vitamin E may be one such therapy. We aimed to identify publications of studies that evaluated the effectiveness of vitamin E as it pertains to thermal burn injuries, infection, and sepsis. Several investigations ranging from in vitro bench work to clinical studies have examined the impact on, or influence of, vitamin E in vitro, in vivo, and in the clinical setting. To the benefit of subjects it has been shown that enteral or parenteral vitamin E supplementation can prevent, mitigate, and even reverse the effects of thermal burn injuries, infection, and sepsis. Therefore, a large scale prospective observational study to assess the potential benefits of vitamin E supplementation in patients is warranted and could result in clinical care practice paradigm changes.

Read more

Revisiting the therapeutic potential of tocotrienol

Ranmali Ranasinghe, Michael Mathai, Anthony Zulli

Biofactors . 2022 Jun 20. doi: 10.1002/biof.1873. Online ahead of print


The therapeutic potential of the tocotrienol group stems from its nutraceutical properties as a dietary supplement. It is largely considered to be safe when consumed at low doses for attenuating pathophysiology as shown by animal models, in vitro assays, and ongoing human trials. Medical researchers and the allied sciences have experimented with tocotrienols for many decades, but its therapeutic potential was limited to adjuvant or concurrent treatment regimens. Recent studies have focused on targeted drug delivery by enhancing the bioavailability through carriers, self-sustained emulsions, nanoparticles, and ethosomes. Epigenetic modulation and computer remodeling are other means that will help increase chemosensitivity. This review will focus on the systemic intracellular anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms that are stimulated and/or regulated by tocotrienols while highlighting its potent therapeutic properties in a diverse group of clinical diseases.

Read more

Therapeutic effects of intranasal tocotrienol-rich fraction on rhinitis symptoms in platelet-activating factor induced allergic rhinitis

Cheryl Wei Ling Teo, Stephanie Jia Ying Png, Yee Wei Ung, Wei Ney Yap

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol . 2022 Jun 13;18(1):52


Background: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been suggested to be a potent inflammatory mediator in Allergic rhinitis (AR) pathogenesis. Vitamin E, an essential nutrient that comprises tocopherol and tocotrienol, is known as a potential therapeutic agent for airway allergic inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of intranasal Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on PAF-induced AR in a rat model.

Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups: Control, PAF-induced AR and PAF-induced AR with TRF treatment. To induce AR, 50 μl of 16 μg/ml PAF was nasally instilled into each nostril. From day 1 to 7 after AR induction, 10 μl of 16 μg/μl TRF was delivered intranasally to the TRF treatment group. Complete upper skulls were collected for histopathological evaluation on day 8.

Results: The average severity scores of AR were significantly higher in the PAF-induced AR rats compared to both control and PAF-induced AR with TRF treatment. The histologic examination of the nasal structures showed moderate degree of inflammation and polymorphonuclear cells infiltration in the lamina propria, mucosa damage and vascular congestion in the PAF-induced AR rats. TRF was able to ameliorate the AR symptoms by restoring the nasal structures back to normal. H&E staining demonstrated a statistically significant benefit upon TRF treatment, where minimal degree of inflammation, and a reduction in the infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells, mucosa damage and vascular congestion were observed.

Conclusion: TRF exhibited symptomatic relief action in AR potentially due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties.

Therapeutic potential of palm oil vitamin E-derived tocotrienols in inflammation and chronic diseases: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies

Zaida Zainal, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan, Sui Kiat Chang

Food Res Int . 2022 Jun;156:111175. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111175. Epub 2022 Mar 21


Palm oil is rich in tocotrienols (T3s), a type of vitamin E that has garnered considerable research interest as it exhibits anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant characteristics that are comparable to or exceed those of tocopherols (Toc). Notably, T3 must be consumed as it cannot be produced by the human body. Here, we reviewed the anti-inflammatory activities of T3s in the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory disorders; focusing on recent preclinical and clinical studies. There is compelling data from experimental models and human studies that shows that T3 administration can inhibit the release of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to age-related disease by enhancing oxidative stress, reducing melanin production and skin damage, and preventing cardiovascular disease and stroke. There is evidence to show that T3s possess neuroprotective, anticancer, and anti-osteoporosis properties. In addition, T3s also protect the gastrointestinal tract, facilitate blood glucose control in people with diabetes, and prevent fatty liver disease. Furthermore, results from some clinical studies suggest that T3s are beneficial nutritional supplements with no evident side-effects when administered to patients with neurological or cardiovascular disorders. There is growing evidence from clinical trials that shows that T3s can help prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. More well-designed clinical trials, as well as human intervention studies, are required to confirm the health benefits of palm T3.

Read more

Vitamin E reduces inflammation and improves cognitive disorder and vascular endothelial functions in patients with leukoaraiosis

Yan Wang, Guoce Li, Jianping Lv, Yingwen Zhou, Hongxia Ma

Int J Neurosci . 2022 Jun 2;1-9. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2022.2079505. Online ahead of print.


Background: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is a disease manifested by demyelination and gliosis in white matter, mainly caused by cerebrovascular diseases. LA is closely related to the expression level of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients. Vitamin E may play antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles in various diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of vitamin E on the patients with LA.

Methods: A total of 160 patients with LA were recruited in this research. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), MMP-2, C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), C4, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin (ET) levels were evaluated by ELISA. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for cognitive impairment assessment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were analyzed by commercial kits.

Results: The levels of CRP, C3, and C4 significantly decreased in the serum of LA patients after the administration of vitamin E. The levels of MMP-2 and MPP-9 showed a significant decrease in the administered group. Vitamin E significantly inhibited the expression of MDA, while significantly upregulated the expression of SOD. Significant increase in NO production and significant downregulation of ET expression occurred in vitamin E groups. MMSE score was significantly increased by vitamin E.

Conclusion: In conclusion, vitamin E showed effects on the alleviation of inflammatory response, oxidative stress, endothelial damage, and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, vitamin E could be a potential drug for the clinical treatment of LA patients.

Read more

Vitamin E-coated dialyzer alleviates erythrocyte deformability dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis

Ying Zhang, Wei Gao, Xia Li

Exp Ther Med . 2022 Jun 1;24(1):480. doi: 10.3892/etm.2022.11407. eCollection 2022 Jul.


Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are characterized by augmented oxidative stress (OS) due to the imbalance between the generation of increased concentrations of oxidative molecules and decreased antioxidant capacity. Vitamin E-coated dialyzer membranes (VEMs) have previously been reported to alleviate the imbalance of redox metabolism in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD); however, their effect on the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) remains unknown. In the present study, 48 patients with ESRD undergoing HD were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: HD with VEMs (VEM group; n=24) and HD with polysulfone dialyzer membranes (PM group; n=24), and another 24 healthy volunteers served as the control group. The present study investigated the morphological changes and deformability of RBCs in patients with ESRD and healthy volunteers. The concentration of serum vitamin E, the parameters of antioxidant stress and OS, and the degree of oxidative phosphorylation and clustering of anion exchanger 1 (Band 3) in RBCs were measured. The results obtained suggested that VEM treatment markedly ameliorated the abnormalities of RBC morphology and deformability in patients with ESRD undergoing HD. Mechanistic studies showed that VEM treatment led to a marked improvement in the concentration of serum vitamin E, which was positively associated with the restored antioxidant capacity, and decreased oxidative phosphorylation and clustering of Band 3 in RBCs of patients with ESRD undergoing HD. Taken together, the results of the present study have demonstrated that VEM treatment effectively restored the imbalance of redox metabolism, and improved the oxidative phosphorylation and clustering of Band 3 in RBCs of patients with ESRD undergoing HD via delivering vitamin E, which may alleviate the abnormal morphological and mechanical properties of RBCs. These findings are anticipated to be useful with respect to improving the nursing care and cure rate of patients with ESRD.

Read more

The effects of vitamin E on non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Are they sustainable with 12 months of therapy

J-Ian Ho, En Yng Ng, Yilynn Chiew, Yan Yi Koay, Pei Fen Chuar, Sonia Chew Wen Phang, Badariah Ahmad, Khalid Abdul Kadir

SAGE Open Med . 2022 May 26;10:20503121221095324. doi: 10.1177/20503121221095324. eCollection 2022.


Introduction: Prolonged uncontrolled hyperglycaemia has shown to cause oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis and upregulation of angiogenesis in diabetics, which all contributes to diabetic retinopathy development and progression. Vitamin E is found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-thrombogenic and anti-angiogenesis which could play an important role in early treatment of diabetic retinopathy. This study aims to investigate the effect of Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (Tocovid) on the progression of retinal microhaemorrhages and diabetic macular oedema in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Method: This is a multi-centred, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial which involved 55 eligible participants. The participants in the treatment group (n = 22) received Tocovid 200 mg twice daily while those in the placebo group (n = 23) would receive placebo twice daily. Both groups will be on the treatment for a total duration of 12 months. Both retinal signs will be assessed at baseline, 2 months, 6 months and 12 months of treatment to determine the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor which reflects on the angiogenesis process in the eye was analysed as well at similar time points as the retinal findings.

Results: After 12 months of treatment, the placebo group had a significant increase of 23.42% in retinal microhaemorrhages (p < 0.05), but the Tocovid group had no significant changes. Moreover, the Tocovid group showed a significant decrease of 48.38% in area of diabetic macular oedema over the 12 months period (p < 0.05), but the placebo group had no significant changes. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in serum vascular endothelial growth factor level when comparing between both groups.

Conclusion: These findings could indicate that Tocovid has an important role in preventing early diabetic retinopathy progression.

Read more

Vitamin E supplementation improves testosterone, glucose- and lipid-related metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Sebastián Yalle-Vásquez, Karem Osco-Rosales, Wendy Nieto-Gutierrez, Vicente Benites-Zapata, Faustino R Pérez-López, Christoper A Alarcon-Ruiz

Gynecol Endocrinol . 2022 May 25;1-10. doi: 10.1080/09513590.2022.2079629. Online ahead of print


Aim: This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effect of vitamin E supplementation on testosterone, glucose, lipid profile, pregnancy rate, hirsutism, and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: A multi-database search was performed from inception to January 2022 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of vitamin E supplementation with or without another nutritional supplement on women with PCOS. A random-effects model was used to obtain mean differences (MDs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Evidence certainty was assessed with GRADE methodology.

Results: We meta-analyzed eight RCTs reporting vitamin E supplementation alone or combined with other individual substances like omega-3, vitamin D3, or magnesium oxide in adult women ≤40 years old with PCOS. Vitamin E supplementation reduced fasting glucose (MD: -1.92 mg/dL, 95%CI: -3.80 to -0.05), fasting insulin (MD: -2.24 µIU/mL, 95%CI: -3.34 to -1.14), HOMA-IR (MD: -0.42, 95%CI: -0.65 to -0.19), total cholesterol (MD: -18.12 mg/dL, 95%CI: -34.37 to -1.86), LDL-cholesterol (MD: -15.92 mg/dL, 95%CI: -29.93 to -1.90), triglycerides (MD: -20.95 mg/dL, 95%CI: -37.31 to -4.58), total testosterone (MD: -0.42 ng/mL, 95%CI: -0.55 to -0.29), and increased sex hormone-binding globulin (MD: 7.44 nmol/L, 95%CI: 2.68 to 12.20). However, it had no impact on female sex hormones, HDL-cholesterol, BMI, and hirsutism. Two RCTs assessed pregnancy and implantation rates with inconsistent results. The certainty of the evidence was very low to moderate.

Conclusion: Vitamin E supplementation improves glucose, lipid, and androgenic-related biomarkers in women with PCOS.

Read more

In-vitro and in-vivo evaluations of tocotrienol-rich nanoemulsified system on skin wound healing

Wai Ting Chong, Chin Ping Tan, Yoke Kqueen Cheah, Oi Ming Lai

PLoS One . 2022 May 25;17(5):e0267381. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0267381. eCollection 2022


Proper wound healing is vital for the survival of higher organisms. Responses to skin injury can lead to complications such as scar formation that can affect the quality of life. In this study, keratinocytes migration (scratch assay) and zebrafish tail regeneration experiments were used to evaluate the wound healing effect of a tocotrienol-based nanoemulsified (NE) system against ascorbic acid and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as positive and negative controls, respectively. MTT assay provided a concentration range of 0.35-8.75 μg/ml of nanoemulsion that produced cell viability more than 100%. After 24 hours of treatment, the wound closure of keratinocytes were found to be significantly faster by 73.76%, 63.37% and 35.56%, respectively when treated with 3.50 μg/ml and 1.75 μg/ml of NE compared to the blank. The lethal concentration at 50% (LC50 value) obtained from acute and prolonged toxicity was almost similar, which was 4.6 mg/ml and 5.0 mg/ml, respectively. Growth of zebrafish tail regeneration treated with NE at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml was significantly faster than the untreated zebrafish, which regenerated to 40% on the fifth day, more than 60% on the tenth day of treatment and fully recovered at the twentieth day. In conclusion, these results showed the potential of the tocotrienols-based nanoemulsified system in enhancing wound healing through accelerated wound closure.

Read more

Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Metabolism and Nutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease

Francesco Galli, Mario Bonomini, Desirée Bartolini, Linda Zatini, Gianpaolo Reboldi, Giada Marcantonini, Giorgio Gentile, Vittorio Sirolli, Natalia Di Pietro

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2022 May 18;11(5):989. doi: 10.3390/antiox11050989


Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is an essential micronutrient and fat-soluble antioxidant with proposed role in protecting tissues from uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. This vitamin has also important protein function and gene modulation effects. The metabolism of vitamin E depends on hepatic binding proteins that selectively retain food alpha-tocopherol for incorporation into nascent VLDL and tissue distribution together with esterified cholesterol and triglycerides. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition of oxidative stress and increased lipid peroxidation, that are associated with alterations of alpha-tocopherol metabolism and function. Specific changes have been reported for the levels of its enzymatic metabolites, including both short-chain and long-chain metabolites, the latter being endowed with regulatory functions on enzymatic and gene expression processes important for the metabolism of lipids and xenobiotics detoxification, as well as for the control of immune and inflammatory processes. Vitamin E therapy has been investigated in CKD using both oral vitamin E protocols and vitamin E-coated hemodialyzers, showing promising results in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as well as of immune and hematological complications. These therapeutic approaches are reviewed in the present article, together with a narrative excursus on the main findings indicating CKD as a condition of relative deficiency and impaired metabolism of vitamin E.

Read more