Administration of vitamin E attenuates airway inflammation through restoration of Nrf2 in a mouse model of asthma

Quang Luu Quoc, Tra Cao Thi Bich, Seo-Hee Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Yoo Seob Shin

J Cell Mol Med . 2021 Jul;25(14):6721-6732. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.16675. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence reveals that ROS is one of the key mediators that contribute to the development of asthma. Studies on antioxidants have shown to have beneficial effects on asthma management. However, we still do not know the precise mechanism, and the effects depend on age. This study was conducted to assess the levels of ROS and the effect of antioxidants in younger and older mice using an eosinophilic asthma model. We analyzed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cell counts, and the expression levels of NFκB, Nrf2, EPx, and EDN in the lung tissue, as well as the level of ROS in the lung tissue and BALF. The degree of eosinophilia and the levels of IL-5, ROS, and NFκB were significantly increased, whereas the endogenous levels of vitamin E and Nrf2 were decreased in the lung and BALF in the older mice compared to younger mice. The administration of vitamin E attenuated AHR, airway inflammation, and the level of IL-13 and ROS and enhanced the Nrf2 level in the older mice compared to the younger mice. Taken together, vitamin E treatment may have the therapeutic potential through restoration of the Nrf2 level, especially in elderly asthma.

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Effects of tocotrienols supplementation on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Ban-Hock Khor, Hui-Ci Tiong, Shing Cheng Tan, Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor

PLoS One . 2021 Jul 23;16(7):e0255205. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0255205. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Studies investigating the effects of tocotrienols on inflammation and oxidative stress have yielded inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tocotrienols supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until 13 July 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials supplementing tocotrienols and reporting circulating inflammatory or oxidative stress outcomes. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined by pooling eligible studies. Nineteen studies were included for qualitative analysis, and 13 studies were included for the meta-analyses. A significant reduction in C-reactive protein levels (WMD: -0.52 mg/L, 95% CI: -0.73, -0.32, p < 0.001) following tocotrienols supplementation was observed, but this finding was attributed to a single study using δ-tocotrienols, not mixed tocotrienols. There were no effects on interleukin-6 (WMD: 0.03 pg/mL, 95% CI: -1.51, 1.58, p = 0.966), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (WMD: -0.28 pg/mL, 95% CI: -1.24, 0.68, p = 0.571), and malondialdehyde (WMD: -0.42 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.05, 0.21, p = 0.189). A subgroup analysis suggested that tocotrienols at 400 mg/day might reduce malondialdehyde levels (WMD: -0.90 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.20, -0.59, p < 0.001). Future well-designed studies are warranted to confirm the effects of tocotrienols on inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, particularly on different types and dosages of supplementation. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020198241.

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Association of measures of body fat with serum alpha-tocopherol and its metabolites in middle-aged individuals

Fleur L Meulmeester, Jiao Luo, Leon G Martens, Nadia Ashrafi, Renée de Mutsert, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Hildo J Lamb, Frits R Rosendaal, Ko Willems van Dijk, Kevin Mills, Diana van Heemst, Raymond Noordam

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2021 Jul 22;31(8):2407-2415. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.001. Epub 2021 May 18.

Abstract

Background and aims: The accumulation of fat increases the formation of lipid peroxides, which are partly scavenged by alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH). Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between different measures of (abdominal) fat and levels of urinary α-TOH metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Methods and results: In this cross-sectional analysis in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (N = 511, 53% women; mean [SD] age of 55 [6.1] years), serum α-TOH and α-TOH metabolites from 24-h urine were measured as alpha-tocopheronolactone hydroquinone (α-TLHQ, oxidized) and alpha-carboxymethyl-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC, enzymatically converted) using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Body mass index and total body fat were measured, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (aSAT and VAT) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, we analysed the associations of BMI, TBF, aSAT and VAT with levels of urinary α-TOH metabolites, adjusted for confounders. We observed no evidence for associations between body fat measures and serum α-TOH. Higher BMI and TBF were associated with lower urinary levels of TLHQ (0.95 [95%CI: 0.90, 1.00] and 0.94 [0.88, 1.01] times per SD, respectively) and with lower TLHQ relative to CEHC (0.93 [0.90, 0.98] and 0.93 [0.87, 0.98] times per SD, respectively). We observed similar associations for VAT (TLHQ: 0.94 [0.89, 0.99] times per SD), but not for aSAT.

Conclusions: Opposite to our research hypothesis, higher abdominal adiposity was moderately associated with lower levels of oxidized α-TOH metabolites, which might reflect lower vitamin E antioxidative activity in individuals with higher abdominal fat instead.

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Role of Vitamin E in Selected Malignant Neoplasms in Women

Anna Markowska, Michał Antoszczak, Janina Markowska, Adam Huczyński

Nutr Cancer . 2021 Jul 19;1-8. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2021.1952626. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Vitamin E, which is actually a mixture of eight isoforms (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols), is a powerful antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidation and has the ability to break the chain lipid peroxidation, which is used in the treatment of heart disease, atherosclerosis, muscle disorders or infertility among men. Studies in-vitro show that one of the effects of tocopherol is the reduction of cancer stem cell activity which is connected to poor clinical course. In the scientific literature, reports on the participation of vitamin E not only in protection against the mutagenic effects of reactive oxygen species, but also in its anti-angiogenic activity and the ability to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of neoplastic cells are increasingly common. In this context, the role of vitamin E in preventing the neoplastic process and selected malignant neoplasms among women seems to be of particular interest. In this article, we present the results of research on the potential anticancer effects of vitamin E in the fight against breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer.

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Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate diabetes-induced testicular anomaly in Wistar rats via the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway

Oluwatoyin Osinimega Ojo, Olufunso Olabode Olorunsogo

Andrologia . 2021 Jul 18;e14185. doi: 10.1111/and.14185. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The role of quercetin and vitamin E treatment against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced testicular abnormalities in diabetic rats and the possible mechanism of action they use for protection were investigated. Diabetes was induced by STZ (45 mg/kg i.p. once) and blood glucose was determined. Plasmatic insulin, testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined by ELISA. Levels of cytochrome c, caspase 3 and caspase 9 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, while lesions were viewed by histology. Insulin played a role in testicular protection against male infertility through modulation of luteinising hormone (LH). This consequently increased Leydig and Sertoli cells and maturation of germ cells with the attached epididymis having abundant spermatozoa. The study showed a positive correlation in the levels of LH, FSH and testosterone; it was further established that all treatments normalised diabetes-induced alterations. Treatment with quercetin and vitamin E resulted in 34% decrease of apoptogenic cytochrome c release. This protected the testes against excessive apoptosis by decreasing caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation by up to 30 and 28% respectively (p < .05). Histology also showed that treatment prevented testicular cell death. The findings show that quercetin/vitamin E possess free radical scavenging properties that protected against testicular damage in diabetes. This suggests the possibility of pharmaco-therapeutic intervention.

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GPX4 and vitamin E cooperatively protect hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis

Qian Hu, Yifan Zhang, Huiling Lou, Zexian Ou, Jin Liu, Wentao Duan, Hao Wang, Yuanlong Ge, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang, Zhenyu Ju

Cell Death Dis . 2021 Jul 15;12(7):706. doi: 10.1038/s41419-021-04008-9.

Abstract

Ferroptosis, a newly defined mode of regulated cell death caused by unbalanced lipid redox metabolism, is implicated in various tissue injuries and tumorigenesis. However, the role of ferroptosis in stem cells has not yet been investigated. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is a critical suppressor of lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis. Here, we study the function of GPX4 and ferroptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in mice with Gpx4 deficiency in the hematopoietic system. We find that Gpx4 deletion solely in the hematopoietic system has no significant effect on the number and function of HSPCs in mice. Notably, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells lacking Gpx4 accumulated lipid peroxidation and underwent ferroptosis in vitro. α-Tocopherol, the main component of vitamin E, was shown to rescue the Gpx4-deficient HSPCs from ferroptosis in vitro. When Gpx4 knockout mice were fed a vitamin E-depleted diet, a reduced number of HSPCs and impaired function of HSCs were found. Furthermore, increased levels of lipid peroxidation and cell death indicated that HSPCs undergo ferroptosis. Collectively, we demonstrate that GPX4 and vitamin E cooperatively maintain lipid redox balance and prevent ferroptosis in HSPCs.

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Potential Privilege of Maltodextrin-α-Tocopherol Nano-Micelles in Seizing Tacrolimus Renal Toxicity, Managing Rheumatoid Arthritis and Accelerating Bone Regeneration

Hala M Helal, Wael M Samy, Elbadawy A Kamoun, Esmail M El-Fakharany, Doaa A Abdelmonsif, Rania G Aly, Sana M Mortada, Marwa A Sallam

Int J Nanomedicine . 2021 Jul 14;16:4781-4803. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S317409. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Background: Tacrolimus (TAC) is a powerful immunosuppressive agent whose therapeutic applicability is confined owing to its systemic side effects.

Objective: Herein, we harnessed a natural polymer based bioconjugate composed of maltodextrin and α-tocopherol (MD-α-TOC) to encapsulate TAC as an attempt to overcome its biological limitations while enhancing its therapeutic anti-rheumatic efficacy.

Methods: The designed TAC loaded maltodextrin-α-tocopherol nano-micelles (TAC@MD-α-TOC) were assessed for their physical properties, safety, toxicological behavior, their ability to combat arthritis and assist bone/cartilage formation.

Results: In vitro cell viability assay revealed enhanced safety profile of optimized TAC@MD-α-TOC with 1.6- to 2-fold increase in Vero cells viability compared with free TAC. Subacute toxicity study demonstrated a diminished nephro- and hepato-toxicity accompanied with optimized TAC@MD-α-TOC. TAC@MD-α-TOC also showed significantly enhanced anti-arthritic activity compared with free TAC, as reflected by improved clinical scores and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α levels in serum and synovial fluids. Unique bone formation criteria were proved with TAC@MD-α-TOC by elevated serum and synovial fluid levels of osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA and proteins expression. Chondrogenic differentiation abilities of TAC@MD-α-TOC were proved by increased serum and synovial fluid levels of SOX9 mRNA and protein expression.

Conclusion: Overall, our designed bioconjugate micelles offered an excellent approach for improved TAC safety profile with enhanced anti-arthritic activity and unique bone formation characteristics.

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Environmentally friendly achiote seed extracts with higher δ-tocotrienol content have higher in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity than the conventional extract

Darío R Gómez-Linton, Arturo Navarro-Ocaña, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Silvestre Alavez, Luis Pinzón-López, José A Mendoza-Espinoza, Laura J Pérez-Flores

J Food Sci Technol . 2021 Jul;58(7):2579-2588. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04764-0. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Abstract

Achiote (Bixa orellana) is highly appreciated as a condiment and as the main source of bixin and tocotrienols, both having antioxidant properties. To explore the possibility of maximizing the antioxidant activity of achiote seed extracts using clean methodologies, the use of sonication and green solvents were tested. Ethyl lactate, isopropyl acetate, and ethanol combined with probe sonication produced the best results, obtaining similar bixin contents but higher δ-tocotrienol contents, as well as significantly higher in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity compared with the maceration method extract, requiring low energy and saving time and solvents. The probe-sonicated achiote extract with the highest δ-tocotrienol content was better at increasing the Caenorhabditis elegans resistance to oxidative stress than the extract obtained through maceration. This is the first report about the effect of sonication combined with green solvents on the bixin and δ-tocotrienol content in achiote seed extracts and its relevance on the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity.

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Efficacy of vitamin E in protection against methotrexate induced placental injury in albino rats

Sara Mohamed Naguib Abdel Hafez, Eman Elbassuoni, Walaa Yehia Abdelzaher, Nermeen N Welson, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Khalid J Alzahrani, Fatma Alzhraa Fouad Abdelbaky

Biomed Pharmacother . 2021 Jul;139:111637. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111637. Epub 2021 May 6.

Abstract

Methotrexate (MXT) is a chemotherapeutic drug that has been used in a wide range of clinical practices. Unfortunately, the administration of MXT during pregnancy may induce abortion, fetal deformities, and intrauterine growth retardation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant agent that can ameliorate free radical damage. The current work aimed to shed more light on the possible protective effect of vitamin E against MXT induced placental toxicity and to determine the possible mechanisms; biochemically, histologically, and immunohistochemically. Four groups were used: control pregnant, Vitamin E (VIT E) pregnant, Methotrexate (MXT) pregnant, and Vitamin E Methotrexate (VIT E-MXT) pregnant. The placental tissues were processed for light, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Other samples were obtained for biochemical study; the placental oxidant/antioxidant status was evaluated. The results showed that MXT caused various placental morphological changes in the form of distorted chorionic projection with an accumulation of hemosiderin granules in the trophoblastic cells. Maternal blood vessels showed a homogenous acidophilic material Edema of the extra-embryonic fetal membranes was noticed. A significant decreased in placental weight as well as increase in the oxidative and inflammatory markers were detected. Increased COX2 and decreased eNOS expressions were observed in the MXT group if compared to the control group. VIT E significantly restored the normal histological and immunohistochemical appearance, placental weight, and oxidant/antioxidant balance. It could be concluded the biochemical, morphological, and morphometric findings suggested that vitamin E coadministration is promising in attenuating the placental toxic effect of methotrexate. In this study, VIT E decreased the inflammatory and oxidative stress effect of methotrexate on the placental tissue by enhancing the level of eNOS.

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Cilostazol and Tocopherol in the Management of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: New Insights From a Case Report

Esdras Façanha de Carvalho, Maitê Bertotti, Cesar Augusto Migliorati, André Caroli Rocha

J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 2021 Jul 8;S0278-2391(21)00655-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.06.036. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Several treatment protocols for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) have been published. Despite the efficacy of surgical therapy of approximately 90% as primary therapy, the role of other agents, such as drug administration, should not be underestimated. Based on previous experience with osteoradionecrosis, the association of pentoxifylline and tocopherol has shown encouraging results in MRONJ patients. Despite the need for long-term use of the combination, compliance has been good. However, studies in breast cancer patients revealed that pentoxifylline can require dose reduction or discontinuation due to nausea and epigastric pain. Cilostazol has been used as a substitute for pentoxifylline in peripheral artery disease. Herein we report a case in which cilostazol replaced pentoxifylline at a dose of 100mg, 2 times/day with tocopherol 500UI, 2 times/day, in a 77-year-old female patient that could not tolerate pentoxifylline for the management of MRONJ. After an uneventful 22 months of follow-up, a cone-beam computed tomography revealed complete bone formation and no signs of recurrence. Cilostazol may be a useful and safe alternative to pentoxifylline as part of MRONJ management protocols.

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