Vitamin E – Oskia London

Tocopheryl acetate is the ester of Tocopherol (q.v.) and acetic acid and is classified as both an ester and heterocyclic compound. It is used as an antioxidant and a skin-conditioning active and is known by its more common name, Vitamin E. Vitamin E has been a hotly discussed topic in skin care for some time, but recent scientific research is proving its ability to assist the skin in various ways and showing that it has a very beneficial effect in helping prevent the signs of premature ageing. Scientific studies show us that Vitamin E (or often known as, Tocopherol) has very specific benefits to the skin.

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How to Make a High-performance Vitamin E Serum

Vitamin E is another highly-beneficial additive in the natural formulator’s stock cupboard and seems a common enough ingredient. However, there is a lot to discover and research when creating high-performance natural skincare and especially when using vitamin E. So, we decided to introduce our vitamin E serum formula with some valuable background on this vitamin’s forms and functions.

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The world’s healthiest food – Vitamin E

The most famous of the vitamin E group is alpha-tocopherol. Both with respect to diet and high-dose supplementation, it is among the most intensely studied of nutrients. This is because its ability to help prevent free radical damage is well documented Public health recommendations for vitamin E are typically measured in milligram equivalents of alpha-tocopherol equivalents, or mg ATE. You will find this abbreviation being used throughout our live website charts.

However, despite the current prominence of alpha-tocopherol in public health recommendations and nutrition research, scientists are also interested in potential health benefits associated with lesser studied members of the vitamin E family, especially the tocotrienols. Like tocopherols (including alpha-tocopherol), tocotrienols are naturally occurring forms of vitamin E. Since they cannot be converted by humans into alpha-tocopherol, the tocotrienols are not considered relevant in meeting vitamin E needs. However, preliminary studies suggest that tocotrienols can provide us with health benefits in a way that is distinct from alpha-tocopherol, as well as other tocopherols. We look forward to future research in this area.

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The effects of acrylamide and Vitamin E administration during pregnancy on adult rats testis

Erdemli Z, Erdemli ME, Turkoz Y, Gul M, Yigitcan B, Gozukara Bag H

Andrologia. 2019 Apr 17:e13292. doi: 10.1111/and.13292. [Epub ahead of print]


Thirty rats, with confirmed pregnancies by vaginal smear, were divided into five groups, each including six rats, as the Control, Corn Oil, Vitamin E, Acrylamide, Vitamin E + Acrylamide groups. The births were monitored on the 21st day to select the male rats, and the selected male rats were decapitated at the end of the 8th week. Oxidant-antioxidant parameters, serum hormone levels and histopathological examinations were performed on testis tissues of the rats. It was found that acrylamide (AA) negatively affected the serum hormone levels (Total Testosterone, Progesterone, FSH, LH, Estradiol), oxidant-antioxidant parameters in the tissues (MDA, GSH, NO, SOD, CAT, TAS, TOS) (p < 0.05) and the histological findings (the Johnson’s score, seminiferous tubule diameter, histopathological images), and Vitamin Eadministration resulted with an increase in the total testosterone, progesterone, FSH, LH, GSH, TAS, NO, SOD, CAT levels (p < 0.05) and an improvement in histopathological findings. Currently, it is almost inevitable to be exposed to food-induced AA toxicity and such toxicity is likely to cause lifelong damage. It was concluded that Vitamin E was able to present a protective effect in the testis tissue against AA toxicity; however, further studies are necessary.

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α-Tocopherol, but Not γ-Tocopherol, Attenuates the Expression of Selective Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha-Induced Genes in Primary Human Aortic Cell Lines

Ranard KM, Kuchan MJ, Erdman JW Jr

Lipids. 2019 Apr 16. doi: 10.1002/lipd.12149. [Epub ahead of print]


Of the antioxidant vitamin E isoforms, α-tocopherol (αT) and γ-tocopherol (γT) are the most abundant in the human diet, and αT is consumed from both natural and synthetic sources. αT and γT may differentially impact inflammation and influence cardiovascular outcomes, in part by modulating gene expression. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of natural αT, synthetic αT, and γT on gene expression in two human cell lines. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and endothelial cells (HAEC) were either: (1) treated with 25 μM tocopherolsalone, or (2) pretreated with tocopherols prior to a pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-α) stimulation. The expression of atherosclerosis-related genes was measured using RT2 Profiler PCR arrays. Tocopherol treatments alone did not significantly modulate the expression of genes in unstimulated HASMC or HAEC. TNF-α stimulation significantly upregulated genes involved with apoptosis and stress response in both cell lines. Pretreating cells with tocopherols did not normalize the gene expression changes induced by TNF-α. However, αT pretreatments, but not γT pretreatments, attenuated TNF expression in both HASMC and HAEC. These findings suggest that under stimulated conditions, αT modestly modulates the expression of selective genes and that αT may be more anti-inflammatory than γT.

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Stable Ozonides with Vitamin E Acetate versus Corticosteroid in the Treatment of Lichen Sclerosus in Foreskin: Evaluation of Effects on Inflammation

Russo T, Currò M, Ferlazzo N, Caccamo D, Perrone P, Arena S, Antonelli E, Antonuccio P, Ientile R, Romeo C, Impellizzeri P

Urol Int. 2019 Apr 16:1-7. doi: 10.1159/000499846. [Epub ahead of print]



Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a disease of the skin of unclear etiology that can occur in the foreskin. Topical therapy with corticosteroids is recommended, but they can have side effects.


We aimed to compare the effects of ozonides with vitamin E acetate (OZOILE) versus topical corticosteroid in children undergoing circumcision.


Twenty children undergoing circumcision were treated before surgery: 10 children with OZOILE cream and 10 with 0.1% mometasone furoate once a day for 7 days. Ten age-matched patients with LS of the foreskin without any treatment were recruited as controls. Transcript levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and e-cadherin were evaluated in removed foreskins by qRT-PCR.


OZOILE and steroid topical treatment produced a similar reduction of TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels in foreskins from patients with LS when compared to untreated patients (p < 0.001). OZOILE and steroid treatment caused an increase in the transcript levels of IL-13 and e-cadherin in the foreskin of patients affected by LS in comparison to untreated foreskin (p < 0.001).


On the basis of our biochemical data, a randomized clinical trial might be useful to verify the actual clinical effect of OZOILE as alternative treatment to corticosteroids in children affected by LS of the foreskin.

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Vitamin E modifies high-fat diet-induced reduction of seizure threshold in rats: Role of oxidative stress

Alzoubi KH, Hasan ZA, Khabour OF, Mayyas FA, Al Yacoub ON, Banihani SA, Alomari MA, Alrabadi NN

Physiol Behav. 2019 Apr 13;206:200-205. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]


There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is a causal factor in different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and neuronal damage that may increase susceptibility to seizures. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, HFD, and chemically induced seizures, using the PTZ seizure model in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups: control, HFD, vitamin E (Vit E), and high-fat diet with vitamin E (HFD + Vit E) group. Vitamin E and/or HFD were administered to animals for 6 weeks. Thereafter, PTZ seizure threshold was measured in control and treated rats, and different brain regions were analyzed for levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Current results revealed a significant reduction in PTZ seizure threshold in rats consuming HFD, which could be prevented by vitamin E supplement. Alongside, vitamin E supplement prevented HFD induced changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and capacity enzymes. Therefore, current results suggest that prolonged consumption of HFD increases susceptibility to PTZ induced seizures, which may be related to HFD induced oxidative stress. This increase in the PTZ susceptibility could be prevented by the administration of vitamin E, probably through its antioxidant effect, particularly at the brain hippocampal region.

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Effects of Palm Oil Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) and Carotenes in Ovalbumin (OVA)-Challenged Asthmatic Brown Norway Rats

Zainal Z, Abdul Rahim A, Khaza'ai H, Chang SK

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 10;20(7). pii: E1764. doi: 10.3390/ijms20071764.


Synthetic therapeutic drugs for asthma, a chronic airway inflammation characterised by strong eosinophil, mast cell, and lymphocyte infiltration, mucus hyper-production, and airway hyper-responsiveness, exhibit numerous side effects. Alternatively, the high antioxidant potential of palm oil phytonutrients, including vitamin E (tocotrienol-rich fractions; TRF) and carotene, may be beneficial for alleviating asthma. Here, we determined the therapeutic efficacy of TRF, carotene, and dexamethasone in ovalbumin-challenged allergic asthma in Brown Norway rats. Asthmatic symptoms fully developed within 8 days after the second sensitization, and were preserved throughout the time course via intranasal ovalbumin re-challenge. Asthmatic rats were then orally administered 30 mg/kg body weight TRF or carotene. TRF-treated animals exhibited reduced inflammatory cells in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. TRF- and carotene-treated rats exhibited notable white blood cell reduction comparable to that from dexamethasone. TRF- and carotene-treatment also downregulated pro-inflammatory markers (IL-β, IL-6, TNF-α), coincident with anti-inflammatory marker IL-4 and IL-13 upregulation. Treatment significantly reduced asthmatic rat plasma CRP and IgE, signifying improved systemic inflammation. Asthmatic lung histology displayed severe edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial wall, whereas treated animals retained healthy, normal-appearing lungs. The phytonutrients tocotrienol and carotene thus exhibit potential benefits for consumption as nutritional adjuncts in asthmatic disease.

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