Ca 2+ overload- and ROS-associated mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to δ-tocotrienol-mediated paraptosis in melanoma cells

Michela Raimondi, Fabrizio Fontana, Monica Marzagalli, Matteo Audano, Giangiacomo Beretta, Patrizia Procacci, Patrizia Sartori, Nico Mitro, Patrizia Limonta

Apoptosis . 2021 Apr 3. doi: 10.1007/s10495-021-01668-y. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with still poor therapy outcomes. δ-tocotrienol (δ-TT) is a vitamin E derivative displaying potent anti-cancer properties. Previously, we demonstrated that δ-TT triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Here, we investigated whether it might also activate paraptosis, a non-canonical programmed cell death. In accordance with the main paraptotic features, δ-TT was shown to promote cytoplasmic vacuolization, associated with endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial dilation and protein synthesis, as well as MAPK activation in A375 and BLM cell lines. Moreover, treated cells exhibited a significant reduced expression of OXPHOS complex I and a marked decrease in oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, culminating in decreased ATP synthesis and AMPK phosphorylation. This mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in ROS overproduction, found to be responsible for paraptosis induction. Additionally, δ-TT caused Ca2+ homeostasis disruption, with endoplasmic reticulum-derived ions accumulating in mitochondria and activating the paraptotic signaling. Interestingly, by using both IP3R and VDAC inhibitors, a close cause-effect relationship between mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and ROS generation was evidenced. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into δ-TT anti-melanoma activity, highlighting its ability to induce mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated paraptosis. δ-tocotrienol induces paraptotic cell death in human melanoma cells, causing endoplasmic reticulum dilation and mitochondrial swelling. These alterations induce an impairment of mitochondrial function, ROS production and calcium overload.

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Vitamin E delta-tocotrienol and metabolite 13′-carboxychromanol inhibit colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis and modulate gut microbiota in mice

Chao Yang, Yiying Zhao, Suji Im, Cindy Nakatsu, Yava Jones-Hall, Qing Jiang

J Nutr Biochem . 2021 Mar;89:108567. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108567. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Abstract

The gut microbiota play important roles in colon cancer. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (δTE) and its metabolite δTE-13′-carboxychromanol (δTE-13′) are known to have cancer-preventive effects, but their impact on gut flora during tumorigenesis and the role of the metabolite in δTE’s beneficial effects remain to be determined. In the murine colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we show that δTE and δTE-13′ inhibited the multiplicity of large adenomas (>2 mm2) by 34% (P<.05) and 55% (P<.01), respectively, compared to the control diet. δTE-13′ diminished AOM/DSS-increased GM-CSF and MCP-1, and δTE decreased IL-1β. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNAs, we observe that δTE and δTE-13′ modulated the composition but not the richness of gut microbes compared to the control. Both δTE and δTE-13′ enhanced potentially beneficial Lactococcus and Bacteroides. The elevation of Lactococcus positively correlated with fecal concentrations of δTE-13′ and its hydrogenated metabolite, suggesting that the metabolite may contribute to δTE’s modulation of gut microbes. Furthermore, δTE-13′ counteracted AOM/DSS-induced depletion of Roseburia that is known to be decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. δTE uniquely elevated (Eubacterium) coprostanoloigenes. Our study demonstrates that δTE and δTE-13′ inhibited tumorigenesis, suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulated gut microbiota in a murine CAC model. These findings uncover new and distinct activities of δTE and δTE-13′ and support the notion that the metabolite may play a role in δTE’s anticancer and modulation of gut microbes.

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Stable W/O/W multiple nanoemulsion encapsulating natural tocotrienols and caffeic acid with cisplatin synergistically treated cancer cell lines (A549 and HEP G2) and reduced toxicity on normal cell line (HEK 293)

Revathi Raviadaran, Mei Han Ng, Davannendran Chandran, Kah Kooi Ooi, Sivakumar Manickam

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl . 2021 Feb;121:111808. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111808. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of encapsulated tocotrienols (TRF) and caffeic acid (CA) in water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple nanoemulsion with cisplatin towards cancer cells. This work is important considering the limited efficacy of cisplatin due to tumour resistance, as well as its severe side effects. A549 and HEP G2 cancer cell lines were utilised for evaluating the efficacy of the encapsulated W/O/W while HEK 293 normal cell line was used for evaluating the toxicity. TRF, CA and CIS synergistically improved apoptosis in the late apoptotic phase in A549 and HEP G2 by 23.1% and 24.9%, respectively. The generation of ROS was enhanced using TRF:CA:CIS by 16.9% and 30.2% for A549 and HEP G2, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an enhanced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase for both A549 and HEP G2. TRF, CA and CIS led to cell death in A549 and HEP G2. For HEK 293, ~33% cell viability was found when only CIS was used while >95% cell viability was observed when TRF, CA and CIS were used. This study demonstrates that the encapsulated TRF and CA in W/O/W with CIS synergistically improved therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells, as well as lowered the toxicity effects towards normal cells.

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Co-encapsulation of gemcitabine and tocotrienols in nanovesicles enhanced efficacy in pancreatic cancer

Geetha Maniam, Chun-Wai Mai, Mohd Zulkefeli, Ju-Yen Fu

Nanomedicine (Lond) . 2021 Feb;16(5):373-389. doi: 10.2217/nnm-2020-0374. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Abstract

Aim: To synthesize niosomes co-encapsulating gemcitabine (GEM) and tocotrienols, and physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antipancreatic effects of the nanoformulation on Panc 10.05, SW 1990, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Materials & methods: Niosomes-entrapping GEM and tocotrienols composed of Span 60, cholesterol and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate were produced by Handjani-Vila and film hydration methods. Results: The film hydration produced vesicles measuring 161.9 ± 0.5 nm, approximately 50% smaller in size than Handjani-Vila method, with maximum entrapment efficiencies of 20.07 ± 0.22% for GEM and 34.52 ± 0.10% for tocotrienols. In Panc 10.05 cells, GEM’s antiproliferative effect was enhanced 2.78-fold in combination with tocotrienols. Niosomes produced a significant ninefold enhancement in cytotoxicity of the combination, supported by significantly higher cellular uptake of GEM in the cells. Conclusion: This study is a proof of concept on the synthesis of dual-drug niosomes and their efficacy on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.

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Stereological and histopathological evaluation of doxorubicin-induced toxicity in female rats’ ovary and uterus and palliative effects of quercetin and vitamin E

M Samare-Najaf, F Zal, S Safari, F Koohpeyma, N Jamali

Hum Exp Toxicol . 2020 Dec;39(12):1710-1724. doi: 10.1177/0960327120937329. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with demonstrated reproductive toxicity. This study sought to determine the DOX-induced toxicity in the ovary and uterus and the preventive effects of quercetin (QCT) and vitamin E (Vit.E). Female rats were divided into six groups as follows: control, QCT (20 mg/kg), Vit.E (200 mg/kg), DOX (accumulative 15 mg/kg), DOX/QCT, and DOX/Vit.E. After 3 weeks, the toxicity of DOX in ovarian and uterine tissues and the potential palliative effects of QCT and Vit.E were evaluated by histopathological-stereological methods. The findings indicate a dramatic decline in the number of ovarian follicles (p < 0.001), ovarian and its associated structures volume, the volume of the uterus, its layers, and related structures (p < 0.05). Coadministration of QCT and Vit.E with DOX-treated rats demonstrated an alleviative effect on most of the studied parameters. Nevertheless, few adverse effects were recognized concerning these antioxidants administration (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the protective role of these dietary supplements in the prevention of DOX-induced toxicity in uterine and ovarian tissues.

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Co-delivery of doxorubicin, docosahexaenoic acid, and α-tocopherol succinate by nanostructured lipid carriers has a synergistic effect to enhance antitumor activity and reduce toxicity

Eduardo Burgarelli Lages, Renata Salgado Fernandes, Juliana de Oliveira Silva, Ângelo Malachias de Souza, Geovanni Dantas Cassali, André Luís Branco de Barros, Lucas Antônio Miranda Ferreira

Biomed Pharmacother . 2020 Oct 24;132:110876. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110876. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in cancer treatment, however, its use is often limited due to its side effects. To avoid these shortcomings, the encapsulation of DOX into nanocarriers has been suggested. Herein, we proposed a novel nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation loading DOX, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and α-tocopherol succinate (TS) for cancer treatment. DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid and TS is a vitamin E derivative. It has been proposed that these compounds can enhance the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of DOX, DHA, and TS in NLC (NLC-DHA-DOX-TS) could increase antitumor efficacy and also reduce toxicity. NLC-DHA-DOX-TS was prepared using emulsification-ultrasound. DOX was incorporated after preparing the NLC, which prevented its degradation during manufacture. High DOX encapsulation efficiency was obtained due to the ion-pairing with TS. This ion-pairing increases lipophilicity of DOX and reduces its crystallinity, contributing to its encapsulation in the lipid matrix. Controlled DOX release from the NLC was observed in vitro, with increased drug release at the acidic environment. In vitro cell studies indicated that DOX, DHA, and TS have synergistic effects against 4T1 tumor cells. The in vivo study showed that NLC-DHA-DOX-TS exhibited the greatest antitumor efficacy by reducing tumor growth in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. In addition, this formulation reduced mice mortality, prevented lung metastasis, and decreased DOX-induced toxicity to the heart and liver, which was demonstrated by hematologic, biochemical, and histologic analyses. These results indicate that NLC-DHA-DOX-TS may be a promising carrier for breast cancer treatment.

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Chemical Pathology of Homocysteine VIII. Effects of Tocotrienol, Geranylgeraniol, and Squalene on Thioretinaco Ozonide, Mitochondrial Permeability, and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Arteriosclerosis, Cancer, Neurodegeneration and Aging

Kilmer S McCully

Ann Clin Lab Sci . 2020 Sep;50(5):567-577.

Abstract

A century ago a fat-soluble vitamin from leafy vegetables, later named vitamin E, was discovered to enhance fertility in animals. Vitamin E consists of 8 isomers of tocopherols and tocotrienols, each containing chromanol groups that confer antioxidant properties and differ only in the 15-carbon saturated phytyl poly-isoprenoid side chain of tocopherols and the 15-carbon unsaturated farnesyl poly-isoprenoid side chain of tocotrienols. Although tocotrienol was first isolated from rubber plants in 1964, its importance in multiple disease processes was not recognized until two decades later, when the cholesterol-lowering and anti-cancer effects were first reported. Tocotrienol (T3) protects against radiation injury and mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, thereby inhibiting loss of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen ATP, from mitochondria by complex formation with the active site, TR2CoO3O2NAD+H2PO4 T3. The preventive effects of tocotrienol on vascular disease, cancer, neurodegeneration and aging are attributed to its effects on cellular apoptosis and senescence. Geranylgeraniol is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, and cholesterol auxotrophy of lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors is attributed to loss of squalene monooxygenase and accumulation of intracellular squalene. Geranylgeraniol and tocotrienol have synergistic inhibitory effects on growth and HMG CoA reductase activity, accompanied by reduction of membrane KRAS protein of cultured human prostate carcinoma cells. Since cholesterol inhibits opening of the mPTP pore of mitochondria, inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by these effects of tocotrienol and geranylgeraniol produces increased mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis from loss of the active site of oxidative phosphorylation from mitochondria.

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Gamma-Tocotrienol loaded liposomes as radioprotection from hematopoietic side effects caused by radiotherapeutic drugs

Sang-Gyu Lee, Teja Muralidhar Kalidindi, Hanzhi Lou, Kishore Gangangari, Blesida Punzalan, Ariana Bitton 2, Casey Lee, Soobin Park, Lisa Bodei, Michael Kharas, Vijay K Singh, NagaVaraKishore Pillarsetty, Steven M Larson

J Nucl Med . 2020 Aug 21;jnumed.120.244681. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.120.244681. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Rationale: With the successful development and increased use of targeted radionuclide therapy for treating cancer comes the increased risk of radiation injury to bone marrow-both direct suppression and stochastic effects, leading to neoplasia. Herein, we report a novel radioprotector drug, a liposomal formulation of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), or GT3-Nano for short, to mitigate bone marrow radiation damage during targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT). Methods: GT3 was loaded into liposomes using passive loading. [64Cu]-GT3-Nano and 3H-GT3-Nano were synthesized to study the in vivo biodistribution profile of the liposome and GT3 individually. Radioprotection efficacy of GT3-Nano was assessed after acute 137Cs whole-body irradiation at sublethal (4 Gy), lethal (9 Gy), or single high-dose [153Sm]-EDTMP administration. Flow cytometry was used to analyze hematopoietic cell population dynamics and fluorescence microscopy was used to assess the cellular site of GT3-Nano localization in the spleen and bone marrow. Results: Bone marrow uptake and retention of [64Cu]-GT3-Nano was 6.98 ± 2.34 %ID/g, while [3H]-GT3-Nano uptake and retention was 7.44 ± 2.52 %ID/g at 24 h, respectively. GT3-Nano administered 24 hours before or after 4 Gy TBI promoted rapid and complete hematopoietic recovery while recovery of controls stalled at 60%. GT3-Nano demonstrated dose-dependent radioprotection, achieving 90% survival at 50 mg/kg against lethal 9 Gy TBI. Flow cytometry of bone marrow indicated progenitor bone marrow cells MPP2 and CMP cells were upregulated in GT3-Nano-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that GT3-Nano accumulates in CD105-positive sinusoid epithelial cells. Conclusion: GT3-Nano is highly effective in mitigating marrow suppressive effects of sub-lethal and lethal TBI in mice. GT3-Nano can aid in rapid recovery of hematopoietic components in mice treated with the endoradiotherapeutic agent [153Sm]-EDTMP.

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Synergistic Impact of Xanthorrhizol and d-δ-Tocotrienol on the Proliferation of Murine B16 Melanoma Cells and Human DU145 Prostate Carcinoma Cells

Darren Chan, Maureen L Meister, Chappell R Madhani, Manal Elfakhani, Sophie T Yount, Xiangming Ji, Rafaela G Feresin, Desiree Wanders, Huanbiao Mo

Nutr Cancer . 2020 Aug 18;1-12. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2020.1807573. Online ahead of print

Abstract

Isoprenoids suppress the mevalonate pathway that provides prenyl groups for the posttranslational modification of growth-regulating proteins. We hypothesize that xanthorrhizol and d-δ-tocotrienol synergistically suppress the growth of murine B16 melanoma and human DU145 prostate carcinoma cells. Xanthorrhizol (0-200 µmol/L; half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 65 µmol/L) and d-δ-tocotrienol (0-40 µmol/L; IC50 = 20 µmol/L) each induced a concentration-dependent suppression of the proliferation of B16 cells and concurrent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. A blend of 16.25 µmol/L xanthorrhizol and 10 µmol/L d-δ-tocotrienol suppressed B16 cell proliferation by 69%, an impact greater than the sum of those induced by xanthorrhizol (15%) and d-δ-tocotrienol (12%) individually. The blend cumulatively reduced the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase four and cyclin D1, key regulators of cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. The expression of RAS and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in the proliferation-stimulating RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway was downregulated by the blend. Xanthorrhizol also induced a concentration-dependent suppression of the proliferation of DU145 cells with concomitant morphological changes. Isobologram confirmed the synergistic effect of xanthorrhizol and d-δ-tocotrienol on DU145 cell proliferation with combination index values ranging 0.61-0.94. Novel combinations of isoprenoids with synergistic actions may offer effective approaches in cancer prevention and therapy.

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Primary and Secondary Markers of Doxorubicin-Induced Female Infertility and the Alleviative Properties of Quercetin and Vitamin E in a Rat Model

Mohammad Samare-Najaf, Fatemeh Zal, Solmaz Safari

Reprod Toxicol . 2020 Aug 15;96:316-326. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.07.015. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The incidence of cancer has recently risen among the women at the reproductive age. Therefore, exposure to doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy has become a cause of reproductive toxicity followed by secondary destructive effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of quercetin (QCT) and vitamin.E (Vit.E) on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in the ovary and uterus, and the secondary bone-related effects in a rat model. Animals were divided into six groups including control normal saline/corn oil (CON), QCT at 20 mg/Kg, Vit.E at 200 mg/Kg, DOX at accumulative 15 mg/Kg, DOX/QCT, and DOX/Vit.E. After 21 days of treatment, the alterations were analyzed in histoarchitecture, apoptosis, hormones secretion, the gene expression of aromatase and estrogen α-receptor (ER-α) in the uterine and ovarian tissues, and serum levels of bone-related factors. The results demonstrated the ameliorative effects of QCT and Vit.E on doxorubicin caused altered ovarian histology, increased apoptosis, decreased ovarian aromatase and ER-α gene expression (p-value<0.05), decreased estrogen and progesterone levels, decreased ALP (p-value<0.001), and increased osteocalcin (p-value<0.05). The findings suggested that the studied antioxidants administration could be a promising fertility preservation strategy in DOX-treated females.

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