δ-Tocotrienol induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

Junjun Shen, Tao Yang, Yiping Tang, Tianyi Guo, Ting Guo, Tao Hu, Feijun Luo, Qinlu Lin

Food Funct . 2021 May 31. doi: 10.1039/d1fo00461a. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has a notably high incidence rate in Southern China, Southeast Asia, North Africa, Middle East, and the Arctic. δ-Tocotrienol is abundant in cereal and has some health benefits. In our recent study, we showed that δ-tocotrienol exerted anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages in vitro. The aim of this study was to further investigate the chemopreventive effects of δ-tocotrienol on human CNE1 cells. We showed that δ-tocotrienol induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and M phases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Microarray analysis revealed that after CNE1 cells were treated with δ-tocotrienol, 169 genes were up-regulated and 167 down-regulated. ERK1/2 was shown to play a vital role in cell cycle arrest by gene chips. The results suggest that δ-tocotrienol induces cell cycle arrest in CNE1 cells via the p16/CDK4/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Western blots showed that CNE1 apoptosis was related to dysregulated expression of Bax-2 and Bcl-2. Furthermore, caspase-3, -8, -9 up-regulation was related to the apoptotic effect of δ-tocotrienol; therefore, δ-tocotrienol triggers apoptosis in CNE1 cells through caspase-3 signaling. δ-Tocotrienol may potentially be developed as an anti-cancer agent in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Brazilian Population is Differentially Associated with the Intake of Processed Meat and Vitamin E

Radmila Raiani Alves Ribeiro, Isabella Rolim de Brito, Karolline Andrade Souza, Larissa de Castro Souza, Tiago Almeida de Oliveira, Mathias Weller

Nutr Cancer . 2021 May 17;1-10. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2021.1926519. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Northeast Brazil are increasing. To study the association between CRC and diet, data were obtained from 64 patients with CRC and 123 sex- and age-matched controls. The dietary details were recorded using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intake was calculated using Dietsys software (National Cancer Institute, Maryland, USA). In a binary logistic regression model of dietary components (model 1), the chance of CRC increased by 0.2% (odds ratio [OR] = 1.002; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.000-1.004) for each gram of processed meat intake per week (p < 0.010). Consumption of eggs decreased the chance by 0.1% per gram (OR = 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-1.000; p < 0.050). The use of oil (including olive oil) for served food decreased the chance by 1.8% (OR = 0.982; 95% CI: 0.970-0.992) for each time consumed (p < 0.010). In a model of nutritional factors (model 2), intake of vitamin E decreased the chance by 16.8% (OR = 0.832; 95% CI: 0.725-0.940) for each milligram intake per week (p < 0.010). In model 1 and 2 smoking increased the chance of CRC by 10.294 (95%CI: 4.240-27.670) and 2.496 (95% CI: 1.425-3.566) times (p < 0.010; p < 0.010), respectively.

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Vitamin E succinate exerts anti-tumour effects on human cervical cancer cells via the CD47-SIRPɑ pathway both in vivo and in vitro

Xiaoli Huang, Markus Neckenig, Jintang Sun, Di Jia, Yu Dou, Dan Ai, Zhaodi Nan, Xun Qu

J Cancer . 2021 May 5;12(13):3877-3886. doi: 10.7150/jca.52315. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Vitamin E succinate (RRR-a-tocopheryl succinate, VES) acts as a potent agent for cancer therapy and has no toxic and side effects on normal tissue cells. However, the mechanism by which VES mediates the effects are not yet fully understood. Here, we hypothesised that VES mediates antitumour activity on human cervical cancer cells via the CD47-SIRPɑ pathway in vivo and in vitro. Results indicated that the human cervical cancer HeLa cells treated with VES were more efficiently engulfed by THP-1-derived macrophages. In response to VES, the protein expression of CD47 on cell membranes and the mRNA level of CD47 in different human cervical cancer cells significantly decreased. And the level of calreticulin (CRT) mRNA in the VES-treated cells increased. By contrast, CRT protein expression was not altered. miRNA-155, miRNA-133 and miRNA-326 were up-regulated in the VES-treated HeLa cells. Knocking down miRNA-155 and miRNA-133 by RNA interference increased CD47 protein expression in the VES-treated cells. In vivo efficacy was determined in BALB/C nude mice with HeLa xenografts. Results showed that VES reduced tumour growth, increased overall survival and inhibited CD47 in the tumour transcriptionally and translationally. Furthermore, inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10) in the spleen were altered because of VES treatment. Our results suggest that VES-induced antitumour activity is coupled to the CD47-SIRPɑ pathway in human cervical HeLa cancer cells.

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Antioxidant vitamins promote anticancer effects on low-concentration methotrexate-treated glioblastoma cells via enhancing the caspase-3 death pathway

Giou-Teng Yiang, Tsu-Yi Chen, Cian Chen, Yu-Ting Hung, Kuan-Chun Hsueh, Tsai-Kun Wu, Ying-Ru Pan, Yi-Chung Chien, Chao-Hsuan Chen, Yung-Lung Yu, Chyou-Wei Wei

Food Sci Nutr . 2021 May 1;9(6):3308-3316. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2298. eCollection 2021 Jun.

Abstract

Vitamin C and vitamin E are well-known antioxidant vitamins, both of which are also applied as adjunct treatments for cancer therapy. Methotrexate (MTX) is a clinical drug that is used widely for rheumatoid arthritis and cancer treatment. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignant brain tumor; the mean survival time for GBM patients is <2 years with traditional therapies. Developing and investigating novel treatments are important for clinical GBM therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether combined treatment with vitamin C/E and MTX can display anticancer activities on GBM. Our studies showed that MTX displays anticancer effects on GBM in a dose-dependent manner, while vitamins C and E are not cytotoxic to glioblastoma. Importantly, this study showed that vitamins C and E can promote anticancer effects on low-concentration methotrexate-treated glioblastoma. Additionally, this study suggested that MTX alone or combined with vitamins C/E inhibits GBM cell growth via the caspase-3 death pathway.

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Vitamin E beyond Its Antioxidant Label

Anca Ungurianu, Anca Zanfirescu, Georgiana Nițulescu, Denisa Margină

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2021 Apr 21;10(5):634. doi: 10.3390/antiox10050634.

Abstract

Vitamin E, comprising tocopherols and tocotrienols, is mainly known as an antioxidant. The aim of this review is to summarize the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways linked to inflammation and malignancy modulated by its vitamers. Preclinical reports highlighted a myriad of cellular effects like modulating the synthesis of pro-inflammatory molecules and oxidative stress response, inhibiting the NF-κB pathway, regulating cell cycle, and apoptosis. Furthermore, animal-based models have shown that these molecules affect the activity of various enzymes and signaling pathways, such as MAPK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, JAK/STAT, and NF-κB, acting as the underlying mechanisms of their reported anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-cancer effects. In clinical settings, not all of these were proven, with reports varying considerably. Nonetheless, vitamin E was shown to improve redox and inflammatory status in healthy, diabetic, and metabolic syndrome subjects. The anti-cancer effects were inconsistent, with both pro- and anti-malignant being reported. Regarding its neuroprotective properties, several studies have shown protective effects suggesting vitamin E as a potential prevention and therapeutic (as adjuvant) tool. However, source and dosage greatly influence the observed effects, with bioavailability seemingly a key factor in obtaining the preferred outcome. We conclude that this group of molecules presents exciting potential for the prevention and treatment of diseases with an inflammatory, redox, or malignant component.

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Ca 2+ overload- and ROS-associated mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to δ-tocotrienol-mediated paraptosis in melanoma cells

Michela Raimondi, Fabrizio Fontana, Monica Marzagalli, Matteo Audano, Giangiacomo Beretta, Patrizia Procacci, Patrizia Sartori, Nico Mitro, Patrizia Limonta

Apoptosis . 2021 Apr 3. doi: 10.1007/s10495-021-01668-y. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with still poor therapy outcomes. δ-tocotrienol (δ-TT) is a vitamin E derivative displaying potent anti-cancer properties. Previously, we demonstrated that δ-TT triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Here, we investigated whether it might also activate paraptosis, a non-canonical programmed cell death. In accordance with the main paraptotic features, δ-TT was shown to promote cytoplasmic vacuolization, associated with endoplasmic reticulum/mitochondrial dilation and protein synthesis, as well as MAPK activation in A375 and BLM cell lines. Moreover, treated cells exhibited a significant reduced expression of OXPHOS complex I and a marked decrease in oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, culminating in decreased ATP synthesis and AMPK phosphorylation. This mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in ROS overproduction, found to be responsible for paraptosis induction. Additionally, δ-TT caused Ca2+ homeostasis disruption, with endoplasmic reticulum-derived ions accumulating in mitochondria and activating the paraptotic signaling. Interestingly, by using both IP3R and VDAC inhibitors, a close cause-effect relationship between mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and ROS generation was evidenced. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into δ-TT anti-melanoma activity, highlighting its ability to induce mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated paraptosis. δ-tocotrienol induces paraptotic cell death in human melanoma cells, causing endoplasmic reticulum dilation and mitochondrial swelling. These alterations induce an impairment of mitochondrial function, ROS production and calcium overload.

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Vitamin E delta-tocotrienol and metabolite 13′-carboxychromanol inhibit colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis and modulate gut microbiota in mice

Chao Yang, Yiying Zhao, Suji Im, Cindy Nakatsu, Yava Jones-Hall, Qing Jiang

J Nutr Biochem . 2021 Mar;89:108567. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108567. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Abstract

The gut microbiota play important roles in colon cancer. Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (δTE) and its metabolite δTE-13′-carboxychromanol (δTE-13′) are known to have cancer-preventive effects, but their impact on gut flora during tumorigenesis and the role of the metabolite in δTE’s beneficial effects remain to be determined. In the murine colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we show that δTE and δTE-13′ inhibited the multiplicity of large adenomas (>2 mm2) by 34% (P<.05) and 55% (P<.01), respectively, compared to the control diet. δTE-13′ diminished AOM/DSS-increased GM-CSF and MCP-1, and δTE decreased IL-1β. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNAs, we observe that δTE and δTE-13′ modulated the composition but not the richness of gut microbes compared to the control. Both δTE and δTE-13′ enhanced potentially beneficial Lactococcus and Bacteroides. The elevation of Lactococcus positively correlated with fecal concentrations of δTE-13′ and its hydrogenated metabolite, suggesting that the metabolite may contribute to δTE’s modulation of gut microbes. Furthermore, δTE-13′ counteracted AOM/DSS-induced depletion of Roseburia that is known to be decreased in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. δTE uniquely elevated (Eubacterium) coprostanoloigenes. Our study demonstrates that δTE and δTE-13′ inhibited tumorigenesis, suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulated gut microbiota in a murine CAC model. These findings uncover new and distinct activities of δTE and δTE-13′ and support the notion that the metabolite may play a role in δTE’s anticancer and modulation of gut microbes.

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Stable W/O/W multiple nanoemulsion encapsulating natural tocotrienols and caffeic acid with cisplatin synergistically treated cancer cell lines (A549 and HEP G2) and reduced toxicity on normal cell line (HEK 293)

Revathi Raviadaran, Mei Han Ng, Davannendran Chandran, Kah Kooi Ooi, Sivakumar Manickam

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl . 2021 Feb;121:111808. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111808. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Abstract

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of encapsulated tocotrienols (TRF) and caffeic acid (CA) in water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple nanoemulsion with cisplatin towards cancer cells. This work is important considering the limited efficacy of cisplatin due to tumour resistance, as well as its severe side effects. A549 and HEP G2 cancer cell lines were utilised for evaluating the efficacy of the encapsulated W/O/W while HEK 293 normal cell line was used for evaluating the toxicity. TRF, CA and CIS synergistically improved apoptosis in the late apoptotic phase in A549 and HEP G2 by 23.1% and 24.9%, respectively. The generation of ROS was enhanced using TRF:CA:CIS by 16.9% and 30.2% for A549 and HEP G2, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an enhanced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase for both A549 and HEP G2. TRF, CA and CIS led to cell death in A549 and HEP G2. For HEK 293, ~33% cell viability was found when only CIS was used while >95% cell viability was observed when TRF, CA and CIS were used. This study demonstrates that the encapsulated TRF and CA in W/O/W with CIS synergistically improved therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells, as well as lowered the toxicity effects towards normal cells.

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Co-encapsulation of gemcitabine and tocotrienols in nanovesicles enhanced efficacy in pancreatic cancer

Geetha Maniam, Chun-Wai Mai, Mohd Zulkefeli, Ju-Yen Fu

Nanomedicine (Lond) . 2021 Feb;16(5):373-389. doi: 10.2217/nnm-2020-0374. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Abstract

Aim: To synthesize niosomes co-encapsulating gemcitabine (GEM) and tocotrienols, and physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antipancreatic effects of the nanoformulation on Panc 10.05, SW 1990, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Materials & methods: Niosomes-entrapping GEM and tocotrienols composed of Span 60, cholesterol and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate were produced by Handjani-Vila and film hydration methods. Results: The film hydration produced vesicles measuring 161.9 ± 0.5 nm, approximately 50% smaller in size than Handjani-Vila method, with maximum entrapment efficiencies of 20.07 ± 0.22% for GEM and 34.52 ± 0.10% for tocotrienols. In Panc 10.05 cells, GEM’s antiproliferative effect was enhanced 2.78-fold in combination with tocotrienols. Niosomes produced a significant ninefold enhancement in cytotoxicity of the combination, supported by significantly higher cellular uptake of GEM in the cells. Conclusion: This study is a proof of concept on the synthesis of dual-drug niosomes and their efficacy on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.

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Stereological and histopathological evaluation of doxorubicin-induced toxicity in female rats’ ovary and uterus and palliative effects of quercetin and vitamin E

M Samare-Najaf, F Zal, S Safari, F Koohpeyma, N Jamali

Hum Exp Toxicol . 2020 Dec;39(12):1710-1724. doi: 10.1177/0960327120937329. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with demonstrated reproductive toxicity. This study sought to determine the DOX-induced toxicity in the ovary and uterus and the preventive effects of quercetin (QCT) and vitamin E (Vit.E). Female rats were divided into six groups as follows: control, QCT (20 mg/kg), Vit.E (200 mg/kg), DOX (accumulative 15 mg/kg), DOX/QCT, and DOX/Vit.E. After 3 weeks, the toxicity of DOX in ovarian and uterine tissues and the potential palliative effects of QCT and Vit.E were evaluated by histopathological-stereological methods. The findings indicate a dramatic decline in the number of ovarian follicles (p < 0.001), ovarian and its associated structures volume, the volume of the uterus, its layers, and related structures (p < 0.05). Coadministration of QCT and Vit.E with DOX-treated rats demonstrated an alleviative effect on most of the studied parameters. Nevertheless, few adverse effects were recognized concerning these antioxidants administration (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the protective role of these dietary supplements in the prevention of DOX-induced toxicity in uterine and ovarian tissues.

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