Isolation and identification of novel tocotrienols from rice bran with hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties

Qureshi AA, Mo H, Packer L, Peterson DM.

J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Aug;48(8):3130-40

Two novel tocotrienols were isolated from stabilized and heated rice bran, apart from the known alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols andtocotrienols. These new tocotrienols were separated by HPLC, using a normal phase silica column. Their structures were determined by ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and high-resolution mass spectroscopies and established as desmethyl tocotrienol [3, 4-dihydro-2-methyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3′(E),7′(E), 11′-trienyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol] and didesmethy tocotrienol [3, 4-dihydro-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3′(E),7′(E), 11′-trienyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol]. These tocotrienols significantly lowered serum total and LDL cholesterol levels and inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity in chickens. They had much greater in vitro antioxidant activities and greater suppression of B16 melanoma cell proliferation than alpha-tocopherol and known tocotrienols. Results indicated that the number and position of methyl substituents in tocotrienols affect their hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties.

Isoprenoids suppress the growth of murine B16 melanomas in vitro and in vivo

He, L. Mo, H. Hadisusilo, S. Qureshi, A. A. Elson, C. E.

J Nutr. 1997 May;127(5):668-74.

Sundry mevalonate-derived constituents (isoprenoids) of fruits, vegetables and cereal grains suppress the growth of tumors. This study estimated the concentrations of structurally diverse isoprenoids required to inhibit the increase in a population of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells during a 48-h incubation by 50% (IC50 value). The IC50 values for d-limonene and perillyl alcohol, the monoterpenes in Phase I trials, were 450 and 250 micromol/L, respectively; related cyclic monoterpenes (perillaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol), an acyclic monoterpene (geraniol) and the end ring analog of beta-carotene (beta-ionone) had IC50 values in the range of 120-150 micromol/L. The IC50 value estimated for farnesol, the side-chain analog of the tocotrienols (50 micromol/L) fell midway between that of alpha-tocotrienol (110 micromol/L) and those estimated for gamma- (20 micromol/L) and delta- (10 micromol/L) tocotrienol. A novel tocotrienol lacking methyl groups on the tocol ring proved to be extremely potent (IC50, 0.9 micromol/L). In the first of two diet studies, experimental diets were fed to weanling C57BL female mice for 10 d prior to and 28 d following the implantation of the aggressively growing and highly metastatic B16(F10) melanoma. The isomolar (116 micromol/kg diet) and the Vitamin E-equivalent (928 micromol/kg diet) substitution of d-gamma-tocotrienol for dl-alpha-tocopherol in the AIN-76A diet produced 36 and 50% retardations, respectively, in tumor growth (P < 0.05). In the second study, melanomas were established before mice were fed experimental diets formulated with 2 mmol/kg d-gamma-tocotrienol, beta-ionone individually and in combination. Each treatment increased (P < 0.03) the duration of host survival. Our finding that the effects of individual isoprenoids were additive suggests the possibility that one component of the anticarcinogenic action of plant-based diets is the tumor growth-suppressive action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of fruits, vegetables and cereal grains.

Different starting times of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol supplementation and tumor marker enzyme activities in the rat chemically induced with cancer

Makpol S, Shamaan NA, Jarien Z, Top AG, Khalid BA, Wan Ngah WZ.

Gen Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;28(4):589-92.

1. alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-T) and gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-T) were supplemented continuously for 8 weeks in the diets of normal rats and rats chemically induced with cancer using diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and partial hepatectomy. Hepatocarcinogenesis was followed by determining the plasma gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and GGT activities histochemically, at 4-week intervals. 2. Male Rattus norvegicus were supplemented alpha-T and gamma-T at two different doses of 30 and 300 mg/kg diet. The supplementation was started at three different times: simultaneously with DEN administration; 4 weeks; and 8 weeks after DEN administration. 3. Elevation of plasma GGT activities and formation of PGST and GGT positive foci were attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) when alpha-T and gamma-T were supplemented simultaneously with cancer induction. Supplementation begun 4 and 8 weeks after cancer induction did not affect plasma enzyme activities and formation of enzyme-positive foci. 4. alpha-T was more effective than gamma-T, and a lower dose of 30 mg/kg was found to be more effective in reducing the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.

Coupling the cholesterol- and tumor-suppressive actions of palm oil to the impact of its minor constituents on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity

Elson CE, Qureshi AA.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1995 Feb;52(2-3):205-7.

The impact of palm oil on cardiovascular disease and cancer may be explained by the mevalonate-suppressive action of constituent isoprenoid end products of plant secondary metabolism. Assorted monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, carotenoids and tocotrienols down regulate, post-transcriptionally, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity thereby modestly decreasing cholesterol synthesis and concomitantly decreasing LDL cholesterol. The reductase activity in tumor tissues differs from that of liver in being resistant to sterol feedback regulation. Tumor reductase activity retains sensitivity to the post-transcriptional regulation. As a consequence, the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of mevalonate synthesis depletes tumor tissues of two intermediate products, farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are incorporated post-translationally into growth control-associated proteins.

The chemoprevention of cancer by mevalonate-derived constituents of fruits and vegetables

Elson CE, Yu SG.

J Nutr. 1994 May;124(5):607-14.

Anutritive isoprenoid constituents of fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and essential oils exhibit a spectrum of anticarcinogenic activities. The induction of hepatic Phase II detoxifying activities by dietary isoprenoids appears to underlie their blocking action. The second anticarcinogenic action of the dietary isoprenoids, suppression of the growth of chemically initiated and transplanted tumors is, we suggest, secondary to the inhibition of mevalonate pathway activities. Mevinolin, a competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, depletes cells of the intermediate products of the pathway that are required for the posttranslational modification of proteins, a process giving the proteins lipophilic anchors that bind to membranes. As a consequence, nuclear lamins and ras oncoproteins remain in nascent states, and cells do not proliferate. gamma-Tocotrienol, perillyl alcohol, geraniol and d-limonene suppress hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, a rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis, and modestly lower serum-cholesterol levels of animals. These isoprenoids also suppress tumor growth. The HMG-CoA reductase of neoplastic tissues differs from that of sterologenic tissues in being markedly resistant to sterol feedback inhibition. Our review suggests that the mevalonate pathway of tumor tissues is uniquely sensitive to the inhibitory actions of the dietary isoprenoids.

Inhibition of tumour promotion by various palm-oil tocotrienols

Goh SH, Hew NF, Norhanom AW, Yadav M.

Int J Cancer. 1994 May 15;57(4):529-31.

Inhibition of tumour promotion by various vitamin E compounds (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and some of their dimers was examined by an in vitro assay utilizing the activation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen (EA) expression in EBV-genome-carrying human lymphoblastoid cells. The results reveal that gamma- and delta-tocotrienols derived from palm oil exhibit a strong activity against tumour promotion by inhibiting EBV EA expression in Raji cells induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols and dimers of gamma-tocotrienol or gamma-tocopherol lack this activity.

Vitamin E, glutathione S-transferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in cultured hepatocytes of rats treated with carcinogens

Ong FB, Wan Ngah WZ, Top AG, Khalid BA, Shamaan NA.

Int J Biochem. 1994 Mar;26(3):397-402.

1. The effects of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol on glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) activities in cultured hepatocytes prepared from rats treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated. 2. Both the alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol treated hepatocytes showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) GST activities than untreated hepatocytes prepared from the carcinogen treated rats in the first 3 days of culture. Treatment with alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol generally resulted in a tendency to increase the GST activities above that in the untreated hepatocytes. 3. Treatment with high doses (125-250 microM) of alpha-tocopherol and low doses (12.5-25 microM) of gamma-tocotrienol generally resulted in a significant reduction in gamma-GT activities at 1-3 days. gamma-GT activities are reduced as the dose of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol are increased.

Long-term administration of tocotrienols and tumor-marker enzyme activities during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

Rahmat A, Ngah WZ, Shamaan NA, Gapor A, Abdul Kadir K.

Nutrition. 1993 May-Jun;9(3):229-32.

The effects of long-term administration of tocotrienol on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were investigated by determining the activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and glutathione (GSH) levels in blood and liver. Twenty-eight male 7- to 8-wk-old Rattus norwegicus rats, weighing 120-160 g, were used in this study. The rats were divided into four treatment groups: a control group on a basal diet, a group fed a basal diet supplemented with tocotrienol (30 mg/kg food), a group treated with DEN/AAF, and a group treated with DEN/AAF and fed a diet supplemented with tocotrienol (30 mg/kg food). Blood was collected monthly, and GGT, ALP, and GSH levels were determined. The rats were killed after 9 mo, and the livers were examined morphologically. Grayish white nodules (2/liver) were found in all the DEN/AAF-treated rats (n = 10), but only one of the rats treated with DEN/AAF and supplemented with tocotrienol (n = 6) had liver nodules. A significant increase in the level of blood and liver GSH, ALP, and GGT activities was observed in the DEN/AAF-treated rats. Liver GSTs were similarly increased with DEN/AAF treatment. Tocotrienol supplementation attenuated the impact of the carcinogens in the rats.

Effect of tocotrienols on hepatocarcinogenesis induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene in rats

Ngah WZ, Jarien Z, San MM, Marzuki A, Top GM, Shamaan NA, Kadir KA.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Apr;53(4 Suppl):1076S-1081S.

The effects of tocotrienols on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed with 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were followed morphologically and histologically for a period of 20 wk. No differences between treated and control rats in the morphology and histology of their livers was observed. Cell damage was extensive in the livers of AAF-treated rats but less extensive in the AAF-tocotrienols-treated rats when compared with normal and tocotrienols-treated rats. 2-Acetylaminofluorene significantly increases the activities of both plasma and liver microsomal gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and liver microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Tocotrienols administered together with AAF significantly decrease the activities of plasma GGT after 12 and 20 wk (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.002, respectively) and liver microsomal UDP-GT after 20 wk (P less than 0.02) when compared with the controls and with rats treated only with tocotrienols. Liver microsomal GGT also showed a similar pattern to liver microsomal UDP-GT but the decrease was not significant. These results suggest that tocotrienols administered to AAF-treated rats reduce the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.

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