Cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and metabolism to short-chain metabolites of 11′-α-tocomonoenol is similar to RRR-α-tocopherol in HepG2 cells

Alexander Montoya-Arroyo, Tanja Wagner, Nadine Sus, Marco Müller, Alexander Kröpfl, Walter Vetter, Jan Frank

Free Radic Biol Med . 2021 Oct 16;S0891-5849(21)00768-1. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.10.018. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Contrary to the major vitamin E congener α-tocopherol, which carries a saturated sidechain, and α-tocotrienol, with a threefold unsaturated sidechain, little is known about the intracellular fate of α-tocomonoenol, a minor vitamin E derivative with a single double bond in C11′-position of the sidechain. We hypothesized that, due to structural similarities, the uptake and metabolism of α-tocomonoenol will resemble that of α-tocopherol. Cytotoxicity, cellular uptake of α-tocomonoenol, α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol and conversion into the short-chain metabolites αCEHC and αCMBHC were studied in HepG2 cells. α-Tocomonoenol did not show significant effects on cell viability and its uptake was similar to that observed for α-tocopherol and significantly lower than for α-tocotrienol. α-Tocomonoenol was mainly metabolized to αCMBHC in liver cells, but to a lower extent than α-tocotrienol, while α-tocopherol was not metabolized in quantifiable amounts at all. In summary, the similarities in the cytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of α-tocomonoenol and α-tocopherol suggest that this minor vitamin E congener deserves more attention in future research with regard to its potential vitamin E activity.

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α-tocopherol, a slow-binding inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase

Irina Zueva, Sofya Lushchekina, Polina Shulnikova, Oksana Lenina, Konstantin Petrov, Elena Molochkina, Patrick Masson

Chem Biol Interact . 2021 Oct 1;348:109646. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109646. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Abstract

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is reversibly inhibited by α-tocopherol (α-T). Steady state kinetic analysis shows that α-T is a mixed slow-binding inhibitor of type A of human enzyme (Kci = 0.49 μM; Kui = 1.6 μM) with a residence time of 2 min on target. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations support this mechanism, and indicate that α-T first forms multiple non-specific interactions with AChE surface near the gorge entrance, then binds to the peripheral side with alkylene chain slowly sliding down the gorge, inducing no significant conformational change. α-T slightly modulates the progressive inhibition of AChE by the cyclic organophosphorus, cresyl saligenylphosphate, accelerating the fast pseudo-first order process of phosphorylation. A moderate accelerating effect of α-T on phosphorylation by paraoxon was also observed after pre-incubation of AChE in the presence of α-T. This accelerating effect of α-T on ex vivo paraoxon-induced diaphragm muscle weakness was also observed. The effect of α-T on AChE phosphylation was interpreted in light of molecular modeling results. From all results it is clear that α-T does not protect AChE against phosphylation by organophosphorus.

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Pressurized liquid extraction to obtain chia seeds oils extracts enriched in tocochromanols. Nanoemulsions approaches to preserve the antioxidant potential

Lucía Castro-Vázquez, Virginia Rodríguez-Robledo, María Plaza-Oliver, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, Joaquín González, Noemí Villaseca, Pilar Marcos, M Mar Arroyo-Jiménez

J Food Sci Technol . 2021 Oct;58(10):4034-4044. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04866-9. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to use accelerated-solvent-extraction to achieve antioxidant extracts from chia seeds oils, enriched in tocopherols and tocotrienols, namely tocochromanols. Nanotechnology applications have been also incorporated to develop an innovative formulation of chia seeds oil nanoemulsion that preserve its antioxidant potential after conditions of oxidative stress. Chia seeds oils proved to be a valuable source of tocochromanols, from 568.84 to 855.98 μg g-1, depending on the geographical provenance. Quantitative data obtained by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS showed outstanding levels of γ-Tocopherol, over 83%, followed far behind by Tocopherols-(α, β, δ) and Tocotrienols-(α, β, δ, γ)-tocotrienols. The characteristic tocochromanols fingerprint of chia seeds oils was positively correlated with the FRAP and DPPH antioxidant activity of the extracts (between 18.81 and 138.48 mg Trolox/g). Formulation of the Chia seeds oils as nanoemulsions did not compromised the antioxidant properties of fresh extracts. Interestingly, nanoemulsions retained about the 80% of the initial antioxidant capacity after UV-induced stress, where the non-emulsified oils displayed a remarkable reduction (50-60%) on its antioxidant capacity under the same conditions. These antioxidant chia seeds formulations can constitute a promising strategy to vectorizing vitamin E isomers, in order to be used for food fortification, natural additives and to increase the self-life of food products during packing.

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Tocopherols and Tocotrienols-Bioactive Dietary Compounds; What Is Certain, What Is Doubt?

Kacper Szewczyk, Aleksandra Chojnacka, Magdalena Górnicka

Int J Mol Sci . 2021 Jun 9;22(12):6222. doi: 10.3390/ijms22126222.

Abstract

Tocopherols and tocotrienols are natural compounds of plant origin, available in the nature. They are supplied in various amounts in a diet, mainly from vegetable oils, some oilseeds, and nuts. The main forms in the diet are α- and γ-tocopherol, due to the highest content in food products. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol is the main form of vitamin E with the highest tissue concentration. The α- forms of both tocopherols and tocotrienols are considered as the most metabolically active. Currently, research results indicate also a greater antioxidant potential of tocotrienols than tocopherols. Moreover, the biological role of vitamin E metabolites have received increasing interest. The aim of this review is to update the knowledge of tocopherol and tocotrienol bioactivity, with a particular focus on their bioavailability, distribution, and metabolism determinants in humans. Almost one hundred years after the start of research on α-tocopherol, its biological properties are still under investigation. For several decades, researchers’ interest in the biological importance of other forms of vitamin E has also been growing. Some of the functions, for instance the antioxidant functions of α- and γ-tocopherols, have been confirmed in humans, while others, such as the relationship with metabolic disorders, are still under investigation. Some studies, which analyzed the biological role and mechanisms of tocopherols and tocotrienols over the past few years described new and even unexpected cellular and molecular properties that will be the subject of future research.

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Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Vitamin E: Nanoformulations to Enhance Bioavailability

Anis Syauqina Mohd Zaffarin, Shiow-Fern Ng, Min Hwei Ng, Haniza Hassan, Ekram Alias

Int J Nanomedicine . 2020 Dec 8;15:9961-9974. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S276355. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Vitamin E belongs to the family of lipid-soluble vitamins and can be divided into two groups, tocopherols and tocotrienols, with four isomers (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). Although vitamin E is widely known as a potent antioxidant, studies have also revealed that vitamin E possesses anti-inflammatory properties. These crucial properties of vitamin E are beneficial in various aspects of health, especially in neuroprotection and cardiovascular, skin and bone health. However, the poor bioavailability of vitamin E, especially tocotrienols, remains a great limitation for clinical applications. Recently, nanoformulations that include nanovesicles, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles have shown promising outcomes in improving the efficacy and bioavailability of vitamin E. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics of vitamin E and current advances in vitamin E nanoformulations for future clinical applications. The limitations and future recommendations are also discussed in this review.

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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in an Overweight Population With Abnormal Liver Function

Yoon S, Lee H, Ji SC, Yoon SH, Cho JY, Chung JY

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2020 Mar 19. doi: 10.1002/cpdd.790. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a secondary bile acid that is used to treat primary biliary cholangitis. Although UDCA has a hepatoprotective effect in some diseases, its benefit in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of UDCA in overweight subjects with elevated liver enzymes after multiple administrations of UDCA and compare these changes with vitamin E treatment. Overweight subjects (body mass index, 25-30 kg/m2 ) with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (40-200 IU/L) were enrolled. Subjects received one of the following three 8-week treatments: UDCA 300 mg twice daily UDCA 300 mg twice daily for 4 weeks followed by UDCA 300 mg twice daily and metformin 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks, and vitamin E 400 IU twice daily. PK and PD (liver function, lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, and miR-122) analyses were performed. Thirty subjects were enrolled; 1 subject withdrew his consent during the study. The PK characteristics were similar to those of healthy volunteers. The ALT and miR-122 levels decreased in the UDCA groups, whereas the ALT and aspartate aminotransferase levels decreased in the vitamin E group. The lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity did not show significant changes among the groups. There was no serious adverse event, and the safety profiles were similar among the treatment groups. The liver enzyme and miR-122 levels were decreased by UDCA. Considering UDCA and vitamin E have a hepatoprotective effect and different mechanisms of action, combination therapy could be an option for NAFLD.

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