Effect of vitamin E on periodontitis: Evidence and proposed mechanisms of action

Saminathan Shadisvaaran, Kok-Yong Chin, Mohd-Said Shahida, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Xin-Fang Leong

J Oral Biosci . 2021 Jun;63(2):97-103. doi: 10.1016/j.job.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a noncommunicable inflammatory disease of the soft tissue and bone surrounding the teeth in the jaw, which affects susceptible individuals with poor oral hygiene. A growing interest has been seen in the use of dietary supplements and natural products for the treatment and prevention of periodontitis. Vitamin E consists of two major groups, namely tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are botanical lipophilic compounds with excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Highlight: This review aimed to summarize the preclinical and clinical findings on the effects of vitamin E on periodontitis. The current literature suggests that vitamin E could improve the periodontal status by correcting redox status imbalance, reducing inflammatory responses, and promoting wound healing, thus highlighting the potential of vitamin E in the management of periodontitis.

Conclusion: Direct evidence for the use of vitamin E supplementation or treatment of periodontitis in humans is still limited. More well-designed and controlled studies are required to ascertain its effectiveness.

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Systemic treatment with alpha-tocopherol and/or sodium selenite decreases the progression of experimental periodontitis

Nurgül Bas, Nezahat Arzu Kayar, Z Füsun Baba, Mustafa Cihat Avunduk, Seyfullah Haliloğlu, Nilgün Özlem Alptekin

Clin Oral Investig . 2020 Sep 28. doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03579-9. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the effects of sodium selenite (Se) and/or α-tocopherol (αT) applications on the alveolar bone loss (ABL), the number of gingival collagen fibers, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ and CD95+ cell numbers, and serum cytokine concentrations in experimental periodontitis in rats.

Materials and methods: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups of ten as follows: group A: Se group, group B: αT group, group C: Se and αT combined group, and group D: control group (intraperitoneal (IP) saline injection applied). Using the image analysis method in the connective tissue under the connective epithelium, the numbers of iNOS, CD95 positive cells, and collagen fibers were counted. ELISA kits were used to test the concentrations of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-4.

Results: The combination of Se and αT (group C) suppressed ABL compared with the control group (group D) (P < 0.05). In group A (Se), the number of iNOS+ cells was smaller than in group D (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Se has been concluded to inhibit inflammation of the gum due to iNOS. Se and αT can have a remarkable important role in preventing alveolar bone loss, and particularly in combination.

Clinical relevance: Se and/or αT application may be useful in preventing the destruction of periodontal tissue and treatment of periodontal disease.

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Evaluation of the effects of vitamins C and E on experimental orthodontic tooth movement

Esra Bolat, Elçin Esenlik, Meral Öncü, Meltem Özgöçmen, Mustafa Cihat Avunduk, Özlem Yüksel

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects . Spring 2020;14(2):131-137. doi: 10.34172/joddd.2020.0027. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Abstract

Background. This experimental study aimed to assess the effects of Vitamins C and E on orthodontic tooth movement. Methods. Fifty-one male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: five appliance groups and one control group. The appliance groups had an orthodontic appliance consisting of a closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary incisor and maxillary first molar (50 g). Vitamin E and C (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally per day in the first and second groups, respectively. Vitamins E and C (20 μL) were locally injected into the periodontal gap of the moving teeth in the third and fourth groups, respectively, once every three days. No vitamin was injected in the last (fifth) appliance group.The experimental period was 18 days. Histological and biochemical (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and NTx levels) evaluations of the samples were performed, and maxillary incisor‒molar distance was measured before and after the experiment. Results. The amount of tooth movement was similar in the appliance groups. All the vitamin groups showed significantly increased osteoblastic activity, while those treated with systemic vitamins exhibited significantly increased numbers of collagen fibers on the tension side compared to the appliance control group (P<0.05). Conclusion. Vitamin C and E supplements positively affected bone formation on the tension side of the teeth during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

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Interaction between and impact of IL-6 genotype and alpha-tocopherol levels on periodontal condition in aging individuals

Akihiro Yoshihara, Noboru Kaneko, Akane Miyamoto, Kaname Nohno

J Periodontal Res . 2020 Sep 20. doi: 10.1111/jre.12802. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Few studies have assessed the possible interaction between and impact of IL-6 variants and serum α-tocopherol levels on periodontal condition in older individuals. Here, we assessed the relationship between IL-6 variants and serum α-tocopherol levels on periodontal condition by considering effect modification.

Material and methods: Among the study participants, 359 who were 71 years of age underwent a dental examination, biochemical analysis, and interview. After dividing the participants into tertiles based on serum α-tocopherol levels, we conducted Poisson regression analysis to compare the prevalence rate ratio (PRR) for periodontal disease markers with the IL-6 genotype (rs1800796) based on each tertile adjusted by the number of teeth present (offset).

Results: The PRRs of the IL-6 genotype for periodontal condition (probing pocket depth [PPD], clinical attachment level [CAL], and bleeding on probing [BOP]) which were adjusted by the number of teeth present (offset) were 1.17 (P < .001), 1.37 (P < .001), and 1.08 (P = .048), respectively. In addition, a significant association was found between the reciprocal number of PRRs of the IL-6 genotype and three serum α-tocopherol levels. The adjusted PRRs (± standard error) of the IL-6 genotypes for PPD were 0.48 (0.12) for the first group (P < .001), 1.54 (0.04) for the second group (P < .001), and 2.11 (0.03) for the third group (P < .001); similar tendencies were seen for CAL and BOP.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a potential association between the IL-6 genotype and periodontal condition in relation to serum antioxidant concentrations.

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