The aim of this experiment was to clarify the contribution of the alpha-tocopherol transfer activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to vitamin E transport to tissues in vivo. We studied the effect of Triton WR1339, which prevents the catabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins by LPL on vitamin E distribution in rats. Vitamin E-deficient rats fed a vitamin E-free diet for 4 wk were injected with Triton WR1339 and administered by oral gavage an emulsion containing 10 mg of alpha-tocopherol, 10 mg of gamma-tocopherol, or 29.5 mg of a tocotrienol mixture with 200 mg of sodium taurocholate, 200 mg of triolein, and 50 mg of albumin. alpha-Tocopherol was detected in the serum and other tissues of the vitamin E-deficient rats, but gamma-tocopherol, alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol were not detected. Triton WR1339 injection elevated (P<0.05) the serum alpha-tocopherol concentration and inhibited (P<0.05) the elevation of alpha-tocopherol concentration in the liver, adrenal gland, and spleen due to the oral administration of alpha-tocopherol. Neither alpha-tocopherol administration nor Triton WR1339 injection affected (P>or=0.05) the alpha-tocopherol concentration in the perirenal adipose tissue, epididymal fat, and soleus muscle despite a high expression of LPL in the adipose tissue and muscle. These data show that alpha-tocopherol transfer activity of LPL in adipose tissue and muscle is not important for alpha-tocopherol transport to the tissue after alpha-tocopherol intake or that the amount transferred is small relative to the tissue concentration. Furthermore, Triton WR1339 injection tended to elevate the serum gamma-tocopherol (P=0.071) and alpha-tocotrienol (P=0.053) concentrations and lowered them (P<0.05) in the liver and adrenal gland of rats administered gamma-tocopherol or alpha-tocotrienol. These data suggest that lipolysis of triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron by LPL is necessary for postprandial vitamin E transport to the liver and subsequent transport to the other tissues.
Because of the individual biological effects and the uncertain or missing information on levels of tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in foods frequently consumed in Hawaii, 79 food items (50 in duplicate) were analyzed for alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol (alphaT, betaT, gammaT, and deltaT) and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol (alphaT3, betaT3, gammaT3, and deltaT3) in addition to alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alphaTac). Foods from local markets were stored according to usual household habits, freeze-dried, homogenized, and extracted three times with hexane containing butylated hydroxytoluene as a preservative and tocol as an internal standard. A normal-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography system was applied with fluorescence and photodiode array detection that resulted in baseline separation of all eight analytes and the internal standard tocol (To). The sum of all E vitamer concentrations, or total E vitamers (TEV), in all foods analyzed ranged an average from 0.6 to 828 mg/kg (T < or = 542 mg/kg and T3 < or = 432 mg/kg) and showed the following ranges: oils, 497-828 mg/kg (mainly alphaT and gammaT); margarines, 359-457 mg/kg (mainly gammaT); salad dressings, 20-291 mg/kg (mainly gammaT, except alphaT when soy oil was the main ingredient); cookies, 54-138 mg/kg (mainly gammaT); snacks, 101-220 mg/kg (mainly gammaT); nuts, 22-201 mg/kg (mainly alphaT); vegetables, 2-152 mg/kg (mainly alphaT); pasta, 24-90 mg/kg; cereals, 4-56 mg/kg (mainly betaT3 followed by alphaT); fish, 2-39 mg/kg (mainly alphaT); fried tofu, 64 mg/kg (mainly gammaT); breads, 20-22 mg/kg (mainly betaT3); fat-free mayonnaise, 5 mg/kg (mainly alphaT); poi (fermented taro root), 2 mg/kg (mostly alphaT); and fruits, 2 (papaya) to 13 mg/kg (canned pumpkin) with alphaT predominating. Cereals fortified with alphaTac ranked third and eighth among all foods assayed regarding alphaT and TEV levels, respectively. As compared to the few data available in the literature, our values agreed with some (corn flakes, mango fruit, fat-free mayonnaise, dry-roasted macadamia nuts, dry-roasted peanuts, mixed nuts, spaghetti/marinara pasta sauce, oils, and red bell pepper) but differed for many other items. Our results provide new information on the E vitamer content in foods, emphasize the vast differences of bioactivities of individual E vitamers, and confirm the need for analyses of foods consumed in specific study populations.
To examine the distribution of rice bran tocotrienol (T3), we gave rice bran T3 to rats after considering an acceptable daily intake of vitamin E for humans. Male SD rats (5 weeks of age) were fed for 3 weeks on a commercial diet containing 6.4 mg of vitamin E per 100 g wt and additively received vitamin E or the vehicle (vitamin E-free corn oil) by oral intubation. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups depending on the type of test diet: control (vehicle), non-T3 (no T3 + 4.3 mg of tocopherol (TOC)/kg body weight (b.w.)/day), low-T3 (0.8 mg T3 + 3.5 mg TOC/kg b.w./day), and high-T3 (3.2 mg T3 + 1.1 mg TOC/kg b.w./day). The control rats and rats in the non-T3, low-T3, and high-T3 groups took 4.3 and 8.6 mg of vitamin E/kg b.w./day, respectively. Rice bran gamma-T3 was significantly distributed to the adipose tissue and increased from 1.1 to 10.2 nmol/g of adipose tissue according to the rice bran T3 intake.