Mechanisms Mediating Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Delta-Tocotrienol and Tart Cherry Anthocyanins in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Lexie Harlan, London T Mena, Latha Ramalingam, Shasika Jayarathne, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa

Nutrients . 2020 Oct 30;12(11):3356. doi: 10.3390/nu12113356.


Chronic low-grade inflammation is a primary characteristic of obesity and can lead to other metabolic complications including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several anti-inflammatory dietary bioactives decrease inflammation that accompanies metabolic diseases. We are specifically interested in delta-tocotrienol, (DT3) an isomer of vitamin E, and tart cherry anthocyanins (TCA), both of which possess individual anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously demonstrated that DT3 and TCA, individually, reduced systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in rodent models of obesity. However, whether these compounds have combinatorial effects has not been determined yet. Hence, we hypothesize that a combined treatment of DT3 and TCA will have great effects in reducing inflammation in adipocytes, and that these effects are mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), a major inflammatory transcription factor. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and treated them with 1-5 µM doses of DT3 along with tart cherry containing 18-36 µg anthocyanin/mL, to assess effects on inflammation. Neither DT3 nor TCA, nor their combinations had toxic effects on adipocytes. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and p-65 (subunit of NFkB) were reduced at the protein level in media collected from adipocytes with both individual and combined treatments. Additionally, other downstream targets of NFkB including macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Mip2), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) were also significantly downregulated (p ≤ 0.05) when treated with individual and combined doses of DT3 and TCA with no additional combinatorial effects. In summary, DT3 and TCA individually, are beneficial in reducing inflammation with no additional combinatorial effects.

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Development and validation of HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of alpha-tocopherol (free or encapsulated) and cholesterol in semen cryopreservation media

Lamia Taouzinet, Sofiane Fatmi, Yasmina Salhi-Amrani, Malika Lahiani-Skiba, Mohamed Skiba, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada

Biomed Chromatogr . 2020 Oct 30;e5018. doi: 10.1002/bmc.5018. Online ahead of print.


High-performance chromatography method was developed and validated for essaying α-tocopherol and cholesterol in cryopreservation media. Chromatographic separation was performed on isocratic system, using a C-18 column. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of methanol: acetonitrile: water 68:28:4 (v/v/v), using a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and 20 μl injection volume, at a wavelength of 208 nm. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, accurate, precise and linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 over a wide concentration range of both analytes. Vitamin E and cholesterol presented limits of detection of 0.002 mg/ml, 0.026 mg/ml and limits of quantitation of 0.006 mg/ml, 0.086 mg/ml, respectively. This method shows simple, rapid, high precision and accuracy and offers the advantage of simultaneous assay of vitamin E and cholesterol (alone, in cyclodextrins complexes or in liposome loaded) on semen cryopreservation media.

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Vitamin E attenuates the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in mice

Liang Ruan, Peng Yang, Shuang-Ping Chen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu

Australas J Dermatol . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/ajd.13492. Online ahead of print.

Research Letter

Systemic sclerosis, is a progressive connective tissue disease characterised by extensive fibrosis and affects skin as well as various internal organs.1 Skin fibrosis, a highly recognised feature of systemic sclerosis, causes significant physical disability and psychological disorder but is difficult to treat.2 Recently, vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, has been demonstrated to exert anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in some fibrotic diseases.3-5 This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on skin fibrosis in bleomycin-induced mouse model of scleroderma and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

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γ- and δ-Tocotrienols interfere with senescence leading to decreased viability of cells

Maria Janubova, Jozef Hatok, Katarina Konarikova, Ingrid Zitnanova

Mol Cell Biochem . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1007/s11010-020-03954-w. Online ahead of print.


Senescence is an irreversible permanent cell cycle arrest accompanied by changes in cell morphology and physiology. Bioactive compounds including tocotrienols (vitamin E) can affect important biological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate how γ- and δ-tocotrienols can affect stress-induced premature senescence. We established two different models of premature stress senescence by induction of senescence with either hydrogen peroxide or etoposide in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5 (ECACC, England). We observed increased percentage of cells with increased SA-β-galactosidase activity, decreased cell viability/proliferation and increased level of p21 in both models. In addition, γ-tocotrienol or δ-tocotrienol (both at concentrations of 150, 200 and 300 μM) were added to the cells along with the inductor of senescence (cotreatment). We have found that this cotreatment led to the decrease of cell viability/proliferation in both models of premature stress senescence, but did not change the percentage of senescent cells. Moreover, we detected no expression of caspase-3 or apoptotic DNA fragmentation in any models of premature stress senescence after the cotreatment with γ- as well as δ-tocotrienols. However, an increased level of autophagic protein LC-3 II was detected in cells with hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence after the cotreatment with γ-tocotrienol as well as δ-tocotrienol. In case of etoposide-induced senescence only δ-tocotrienol cotreatment led to an increased level of LC-3 II protein in cells. According to our work δ-tocotrienol is more effective compound than γ-tocotrienol.

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Changes in vitamin E levels as a marker of female infertility

Mussarat Ashraf, Fatima Mustansir, Syed Mujtaba Baqir, Faiza Alam, Rehana Rehman

J Pak Med Assoc . 2020 Oct;70(10):1762-1766. doi: 10.5455/JPMA.40329.


Objective: To study the impact of Vitamin E (VE) levels of follicular fluid (FF) on oocyte competence, embryo development and pregnancy outcome in patients after intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples in which follicular fluid of 137 females booked for ICSI, was obtained during oocyte retrieval, centrifuged and stored for analysis. VE levels in FF were analyzed by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. Receiver Operating Curve (ROC)was used to demarcate VE levels required for acquiring pregnancy. Generalized linear model using log binomial regression was applied to see the effect of VE on pregnancy, the effect of VE on oocyte and embryo parameters was assessed by linear regression; all p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: ROC suggested 5.49 (unit) as the cutoff value of VE in the pregnancy group, with 72.9% area under the curve. Ninety-one females comprised Group I with VE > 5.49, whereas forty six females formed Group II with VE < 5.49. Follicular fluid VE levels were significantly high in 39 (28.5%) females who compromised pregnancy group. Chances of pregnancy increased to 4% with an increase in VE levels (p-value 0.01). VE gave significant positive relationship with all oocyte (retrieved, mature and fertilized) parameters, cleavage of embryo till its differentiation to blastocysts (p<0.01).

Conclusions: Adequate amount of VE in follicular fluid enhances the possibility of maturation of oocytes which resulted in better reproductive outcome after ICSI.

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Achiote (Bixa orellana) Lipophilic Extract, Bixin, and δ-tocotrienol Effects on Lifespan and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

Darío R Gómez-Linton, Silvestre Alavez, Arturo Navarro-Ocaña, Angélica Román-Guerrero, Luis Pinzón-López, Laura J Pérez-Flores

Planta Med . 2020 Oct 29. doi: 10.1055/a-1266-6674. Online ahead of print.


The onset of many degenerative diseases related to aging has been associated with a decrease in the activity of antistress systems, and pharmacological interventions increasing stress resistance could be effective to prevent the development of such diseases. Achiote is a valuable source of carotenoid and tocotrienols, which have antioxidant activity. In this work, we explore the capacity of an achiote seed extract and its main compounds to modulate the lifespan and antistress responses on Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as the mechanisms involved in these effects. Achiote lipophilic extract, bixin, and δ-tocotrienol were applied on nematodes to carry out lifespan, stress resistance, and fertility assays. The achiote seed extract increased the median and maximum lifespan up to 35% and 27% and increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stresses without adverse effects on fertility. The beneficial effects were mimicked by a bixin+δ-tocotrienol mixture. All the effects on lifespan and stress resistance were independent of caloric restriction but dependent on the insulin/insulin growth factor-1 pathway. This study could provide insights for further research on a new beneficial use of this important crop in health and nutraceutical applications beyond its use as a source of natural pigments.

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Negative Correlation Between Vitamin A and Positive Correlation Between Vitamin E and Inflammation Among Healthy Adults in Korea: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016-2018 7th Edition

Ki-Hong Hong, Young Lee

J Inflamm Res . 2020 Oct 29;13:799-811. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S265856. eCollection 2020.


Purpose: Vitamins exert its effect through different isoforms. The isoform conversion phases involved are affected outside factors. Here, we investigated the correlation between serum retinol, α-tocopherol, and serum inflammatory markers using stratified data acquired from 2016 to 2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Materials and methods: This study was based on data acquired from the 7th edition (2016-2018) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, consisting of survey data on smoking and alcohol drinking, serum retinol level, serum α-tocopherol level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and baseline characteristics.

Results: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in alcohol drinking men. There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in the alcohol-nonsmoking female group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking female group. There was positive correlation between vitamin A and E and metabolic syndrome. The lowest vitamin A level was observed in subjects with all five metabolic syndrome criteria matched.

Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP and positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP. Absorption and secretion of serum retinol are affected by inflammation status through retinol-binding protein. Alcohol acts as a competitive inhibitor of vitamin A oxidation through alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH activity. Smoking causes inflammation and induces reactive oxygen species scavenging system and increases cytochrome p450 levels. These factors may have contributed to the observed findings. Metabolic syndrome subjects increased as the levels of vitamin A and vitamin E increased. Since obesity is inversely related to ALDH activity, we postulate that patients with metabolic syndrome may also have low ALDH activity, especially in the Asian population. Future studies are warranted to study the efficacy of ALDH or ALDH inducers in patients with vitamin A deficiency or metabolic syndrome.

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Bone health ingredients for dietary supplements: Calcium and beyond

Jia Zhang Lee, executive director, Davos Life Science (Singapore), has safety in mind, too, when he talks about the category of tocotrienols and the future of his company’s tocotrienols ingredient, DavosLife E3.

In layman’s terms, tocotrienols and their siblings, tocopherols, are part of the vitamin E family. The Office of Dietary Supplements explains that naturally occurring vitamin E exists in eight chemical forms (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol; and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol) that have varying levels of biological activity. Vegetable oils are a good source of tocotrienols, especially palm oil and rice bran oil.

When it comes to trends in the bone health category for supplements and functional food, Lee sees movement toward “taking preventative measures with a focus on naturally sourced ingredients. People are realizing that health is something to be preserved rather than fixed,” he says. “They are looking for ways to maintain health and wellness as they age.”

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Effects of vitamin E on stroke: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

Hong Chuan Loh, Renly Lim, Kai Wei Lee, Chin Yik Ooi, Deik Roy Chuan, Irene Looi, Yuen Kah Hay, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan

Stroke Vasc Neurol . 2020 Oct 27;svn-2020-000519. doi: 10.1136/svn-2020-00051


There are several previous studies on the association of vitamin E with prevention of stroke but the findings remain controversial. We have conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis together with trial sequential analysis of randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effect of vitamin E supplementation versus placebo/no vitamin E on the risk reduction of total, fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through Medline, PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A total of 18 studies with 148 016 participants were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in the prevention of total stroke (RR (relative risk)=0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.04, p=0.57), fatal stroke (RR=0.96, 95% CI 0.77-1.20, p=0.73) and non-fatal stroke (RR=0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.05, p=0.35). Subgroup analyses were performed under each category (total stroke, fatal stroke and non-fatal stroke) and included the following subgroups (types of prevention, source and dosage of vitamin E and vitamin E alone vs control). The findings in all subgroup analyses were statistically insignificant. In stroke subtypes analysis, vitamin E showed significant risk reduction in ischaemic stroke (RR=0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99, p=0.04) but not in haemorrhagic stroke (RR=1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.39, p=0.08). However, the trial sequential analysis demonstrated that more studies were needed to control random errors. Limitations of this study include the following: trials design may not have provided sufficient power to detect a change in stroke outcomes, participants may have had different lifestyles or health issues, there were a limited number of studies available for subgroup analysis, studies were mostly done in developed countries, and the total sample size for all included studies was insufficient to obtain a meaningful result from meta-analysis. In conclusion, there is still a lack of statistically significant evidence of the effects of vitamin E on the risk reduction of stroke. Nevertheless, vitamin E may offer some benefits in the prevention of ischaemic stroke and additional well-designed randomised controlled trials are needed to arrive at a definitive finding. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020167827.

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Pretreatment with bisoprolol and vitamin E alone or in combination provides neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

Chiman Salehi, Monireh Seiiedy, Hamid Soraya, Farzaneh Fazli, Morteza Ghasemnejad-Berenji

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol . 2020 Oct 27. doi: 10.1007/s00210-020-02007-9. Online ahead of print.


Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces selective neuronal injury in the hippocampus, leading to severe impairment in behavior, learning, and memory functions. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of bisoprolol (biso) and vitamin E (vit E) treatment alone or in combination on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A total of 30 male rats were divided randomly into five groups (n = 6), sham, I/R, I/R + biso, I/R + vit E, and I/R + biso+vit E. Cerebral I/R group underwent global ischemia by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min. Treatment groups received drugs once daily intraperitoneally for 7 days before the I/R induction. Locomotive and cognitive behaviors were utilized by open-field and Morris water maze tests. After behavioral testing, the brain was removed and processed to evaluate cerebral infarct size, histopathologic changes, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In I/R group tissue MDA and MPO levels and cerebral infarct size were significantly increased in comparison with the sham group. Furthermore, significant deficits were observed in locomotion and spatial memory after I/R. The areas of cerebral infarction, MPO, and MDA levels in biso, vit E, and combination group were significantly reduced compared with I/R group. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in leukocyte infiltration in all treated groups with the most profound reduction in the combination group. According to the behavioral tests, administration of biso and/or vit E protected locomotive ability and improved spatial memory after cerebral I/R. Our findings show that biso and vit E have beneficial effects against the I/R injury and due to their synergistic effects when administered in combination, may have a more pronounced protective effect on the cerebral I/R injury.

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