Safety Assessment of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols as Used in Cosmetics

Fiume MM, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA, Heldreth B

Send to Int J Toxicol. 2018 Sep/Oct;37(2_suppl):61S-94S. doi: 10.1177/1091581818794455.


The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 14 tocopherols and tocotrienols and concluded these ingredients are safe as used in cosmetics. The tocopherols are reported to function in cosmetics as antioxidants or skin-conditioning agents; in contrast, tocotrienols are not reported to function as an antioxidants in cosmetics but as a light stabilizer, oral care agent, or skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed the new and existing animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients and found it appropriate to extrapolate the existing information to conclude on the safety of all the tocopherols and tocotrienols.

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The Role of Vitamin E in the Treatment of NAFLD

Perumpail BJ, Li AA, John N, Sallam S, Shah ND, Kwong W, Cholankeril G, Kim D, Ahmed A

Diseases. 2018 Sep 24;6(4). pii: E86. doi: 10.3390/diseases6040086


There has been a growing interest in the role of vitamin E supplementation in the treatment and/or prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). We performed a systematic review of the medical literature from inception through 15 June 2018 by utilizing PubMed and searching for key terms such as NAFLD, vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data from studies and medical literature focusing on the role of vitamin E therapy in patients with NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were reviewed. Most studies assessing the impact of vitamin E in NAFLD were designed to evaluate patients with NASH with documented biochemical and histological abnormalities. These studies demonstrated improvement in biochemical profiles, with a decline in or normalization of liver enzymes. Furthermore, histological assessment showed favorable outcomes in lobular inflammation and hepatic steatosis following treatment with vitamin E. Current guidelines regarding the use of vitamin E in the setting of NAFLD recommend that vitamin E-based treatment be restricted to biopsy-proven nondiabetic patients with NASH only. However, some concerns have been raised regarding the use of vitamin E in patients with NASH due to its adverse effects profile and lack of significant improvement in hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of vitamin E accompanied by ease-of-use and exceptional tolerability have made vitamin E a pragmatic therapeutic choice in non-diabetic patients with histologic evidence of NASH. Future clinical trials with study design to assess vitamin E in combination with other anti-fibrotic agents may yield an additive or synergistic therapeutic effect.

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Antiglycation study of HMG-R inhibitors and tocotrienol against glycated BSA and LDL: A comparative study.

Nabi R, Alvi SS, Khan RH, Ahmad S, Ahmad S, Khan MS

Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Sep;116:983-992. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.05.115. Epub 2018 May 18.


Non-enzymatic glycation mediated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generation results in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) which is greatly influenced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Co-A reductase (HMG-R) activity. HMG-R inhibitors, statins, are well known for reducing mortality and morbidity of ASCVD in patients with diabetes due to their pleiotropic effects independent of cholesterol lowering. Due to distinct chemical structures, various statins may play important role in the inhibition of AGEs mediated pathologies. Herein, we evaluated the anti-glycating potential of atorvastatin (AT), rosuvastatin (RT), pitavastatin (PT), fluvastatin (FT), simvastatin (ST) alone as well in combination with ezetimibe (EZ) and tocotrienol (TT) against d-ribose mediated BSA and LDL glycation by various physicochemical approaches. Our data suggested that AT, TT, RT, EZ, EZ-AT, and EZ-RT were able to substantially inhibit the AGEs formation via modulation of hyperchromicity, fluorogenic AGEs, % contribution of α-helix and β-sheets to protein secondary structure, amide-I band stretching, carbonyl and HMF content in Gly-BSA as well as Gly-LDL. On the basis of above findings, we concluded that HMG-R inhibitors and TT, alone or in combination with EZ, may be established as terrific therapeutic agents for the patients suffering from AGEs induced diabetic cum ASCVD complications.

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Role of dietary α- and γ-tocopherol from Rosa mosqueta oil in the prevention of alterations induced by high-fat diet in a murine model

Tapia G, Silva D, Romero N, Pettinelli P, Dossi CG, de Miguel M, González-Mañán D

Nutrition. 2018 Sep;53:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.012. Epub 2018 Apr 3.



The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of tocopherols present in Rosa mosqueta oil (RM) in the prevention of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced alterations.


Male C57 BL/6 J mice (n = 9/group) were fed for 12 wk and divided into four groups: control (CD; 10% kcal fat, 20% kcal protein, 70% kcal carbohydrates); HFD (60% as fat, 20% kcal protein, 20% kcal carbohydrates); HFD + RM (0.01 mL/g body weight/d); and HFD + RM without tocopherols (0.01 mL/g body weight/d). Parameters of obesity, liver steatosis (histology, triacylglycerols content), inflammation (adipose NLRP3 inflammasome, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 β expression, hepatic nuclear factor-κB) and oxidative stress (hepatic Nrf2 activation, carbonylated proteins) were evaluated.


Liver steatosis, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HFD + RM compared with the HFD + RM, with no differences between HFD and HFD + RM.


The present study suggests that α- and γ-tocopherols from RM may have an important role in the prevention of alterations induced by HFD.

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Endogenous metabolites of vitamin E limit inflammation by targeting 5-lipoxygenase

Pein H, Ville A, Pace S, Temml V, Garscha U, Raasch M, Alsabil K, Viault G, Dinh CP, Guilet D, Troisi F, Neukirch K, König S, Bilancia R, Waltenberger B, Stuppner H, Wallert M, Lorkowski S, Weinigel C, Rummler S, Birringer M, Roviezzo F, Sautebin L, Helesbeux JJ, Séraphin D, Mosig AS, Schuster D, Rossi A, Richomme P, Werz O, Koeberle A

Nat Commun. 2018 Sep 20;9(1):3834. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06158-5.


Systemic vitamin E metabolites have been proposed as signaling molecules, but their physiological role is unknown. Here we show, by library screening of potential human vitamin E metabolites, that long-chain ω-carboxylates are potent allosteric inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of chemoattractant and vasoactive leukotrienes. 13-((2R)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-yl)-2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoic acid (α-T-13′-COOH) can be synthesized from α-tocopherol in a human liver-on-chip, and is detected in human and mouse plasma at concentrations (8-49 nM) that inhibit 5-lipoxygenase in human leukocytes. α-T-13′-COOH accumulates in immune cells and inflamed murine exudates, selectively inhibits the biosynthesis of 5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediators in vitro and in vivo, and efficiently suppresses inflammation and bronchial hyper-reactivity in mouse models of peritonitis and asthma. Together, our data suggest that the immune regulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of α-tocopherol depend on its endogenous metabolite α-T-13′-COOH, potentially through inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase in immune cells.

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Give your skin a natural boost with vitamin E

If you had the chance, you’d probably hire an army of experts, or stock up on an arsenal of beauty products, if it meant defending your skin against the daily assaults it’s subjected to. The fact remains, we’re completely on board with going all out to give your skin the TLC it really needs. But, what if we told you that you don’t need to invest all that much in an arsenal when you have the Achilles of skincare experts, at your disposal? Yes, you guessed it—we’re talking about that wonder skin vitamin we call vitamin E.  Here’s how you can reap the benefits of this humble oil.

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Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E from Palm Oil (Tocovid) and Its Effects in Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy: A Pilot Phase II Clinical Trial.

Tan SMQ, Chiew Y, Ahmad B, Kadir KA

Nutrients. 2018 Sep 17;10(9). pii: E1315. doi: 10.3390/nu10091315.


Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E from palm oil (Tocovid) has been shown to ameliorate diabetes through its superior antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and anti-inflammatory properties in diabetic rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Tocovid on diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline parameters of potential subjects such as HbA1c, blood pressure, Advanced Glycation Endproduct (AGE), soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), Nε-Carboxymethyllysine (Nε-CML), and Cystatin C were assessed for possible correlation with diabetic nephropathy. Only subjects with diabetic nephropathy or urine microalbuminuria-positive defined as Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio (UACR) >10 mg/mmol were recruited into a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 22) received Tocovid 200 mg twice a day while the control group (n = 23) received placebo twice a day for 8 weeks. Changes in Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, serum biomarkers and renal parameters such as UACR, serum creatinine, and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) were compared between the two groups. It was found that serum Nε-CML significantly correlated to the severity of microalbuminuria. For every 1 ng/mL increase in serum Nε-CML, the odds of diabetic nephropathy increased by 1.476 times. Tocovid, compared to placebo, significantly reduced serum creatinine but not eGFR, UACR, HbA1c, blood pressure, and serum biomarkers. In conclusion, serum Nε-CML is a potential biomarker for diabetic nephropathy. Treatment with Tocovid significantly reduced serum creatinine; therefore Tocovid may be a useful addition to the current treatment for diabetic nephropathy.

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Exploring the effect of vitamin E in cancer chemotherapy-A biochemical and biophysical insight

Bhori M, Singh K, Marar T, Chilakapati MK

J Biophotonics. 2018 Sep;11(9):e201800104. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201800104. Epub 2018 Jun 8.


Many oncologists contend that patient undergoing chemotherapy must avoid antioxidant supplementation as it may interfere with the activity of the drug. In the present investigation, we have explored the influence of vitamin E, a well-known antioxidant on Camptothecin (CPT), a potent anti-cancer drug induced cell apoptosis and death of cervical cancer cells. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of CPT in presence and absence of 100 μm vitamin E. Treated cells were subjected to cytotoxicity studies, catalase assay, DNA fragmentation assay, clonogenic assay and flow cytometry based apoptosis detection. Also, Raman spectroscopy a label free technique which provides global information, in conjunction with multivariate tools like PCA, PCLDA and FDA, was investigated to explore vitamin E supplementation induced alterations. Our data based on biochemical and biophysical experimental analysis reveals that CPT causes DNA damage along with protein and lipid alteration culminating in cell death. Importantly, Raman spectroscopic analysis could uniquely differentiate the cluster of control and vitamin E control from CPT and CPT + Vit E treated cells. We conclusively prove that presence of vitamin E at 100 μM concentration shows promising antioxidant activity and displays no modulatory role on CPT induced effect, thereby causing no possible hindrance with the efficacy of the drug. Vitamin E may prove beneficial to alleviate chemotherapy associated side effects in patients during clinical settings which may open the doors further for subsequent exploration in in vivo preclinical studies.

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CoQ10 plus Vitamin E improves metabolic profile in PCOS

Recent research has suggested that serum concentrations of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) correlate with the alpha-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E, and that CoQ10 found in cellular membranes could prevent the oxidation of alpha-tocopherol and may be involved in its regeneration, Azimeh Izadi, PhD candidate in the department of biochemistry and diet therapy at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran, and colleagues wrote in the study background.

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Efficacy of two vitamin E formulations in patients with abetalipoproteinemia and chylomicron retention disease

Cuerq C, Henin E, Restier L, Blond E, Drai J, Marçais C, Di Filippo M, Laveille C, Michalski MC, Poinsot P, Caussy C, Sassolas A, Moulin P, Reboul E, Charriere S, Levy E, Lachaux A, Peretti N

J Lipid Res. 2018 Sep;59(9):1640-1648. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M085043. Epub 2018 Jul 18.


Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) are extremely rare recessive forms of hypobetalipoproteinemia characterized by intestinal lipid malabsorption and severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E is often supplemented in the form of fat-soluble vitamin E acetate, but fat malabsorption considerably limits correction of the deficiency. In this crossover study, we administered two different forms of vitamin E, tocofersolan (a water-soluble derivative of RRR-α-tocopherol) and α-tocopherol acetate, to three patients with ABL and four patients with CMRD. The aims of this study were to evaluate the intestinal absorption characteristics of tocofersolan versus α-tocopherolacetate by measuring the plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol over time after a single oral load and to compare efficacy by evaluating the ability of each formulation to restore vitamin E storage after 4 months of treatment. In patients with ABL, tocofersolan and α-tocopherolacetate bioavailabilities were extremely low (2.8% and 3.1%, respectively). In contrast, bioavailabilities were higher in patients with CMRD (tocofersolan, 24.7%; α-tocopherol acetate, 11.4%). Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol at 4 months were not significantly different by formulation type in ABL or CMRD. This study provides new insights about vitamin E status in ABL and CMRD and suggests the potential of different formulations as treatment options.

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