Endogenous vitamin E metabolites mediate allosteric PPARγ activation with unprecedented co-regulatory interactions

Sabine Willems, Leonie Gellrich, Apirat Chaikuad, Stefan Kluge, Oliver Werz, Jan Heering, Stefan Knapp, Stefan Lorkowski, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Daniel Merk

Cell Chem Biol . 2021 May 12;S2451-9456(21)00212-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2021.04.019. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Vitamin E exhibits pharmacological effects beyond established antioxidant activity suggesting involvement of unidentified mechanisms. Here, we characterize endogenously formed tocopherol carboxylates and the vitamin E mimetic garcinoic acid (GA) as activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Co-stimulation of PPARγ with GA and the orthosteric agonist pioglitazone resulted in additive transcriptional activity. In line with this, the PPARγ-GA complex adopted a fully active conformation and interestingly contained two bound GA molecules with one at an allosteric site. A co-regulator interaction scan demonstrated an unanticipated co-factor recruitment profile for GA-bound PPARγ compared with canonical PPARγ agonists and gene expression analysis revealed different effects of GA and pioglitazone on PPAR signaling in hepatocytes. These observations reveal allosteric mechanisms of PPARγ modulation as an alternative avenue to PPARγ targeting and suggest contributions of PPARγ activation by α-13-tocopherolcarboxylate to the pharmacological effects of vitamin E.

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The effects of tocotrienols intake on obesity, blood pressure, inflammation, liver and glucose biomarkers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Fengxiang Li, Biao Xu, Samira Soltanieh, Fernando Zanghelini, Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Jian Sun

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr . 2021 Apr 28;1-14. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1911926. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to accomplish a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials that dissected the influence of tocotrienol supplementation on various anthropometric and cardiometabolic indices in all individuals, irrespective of health condition. This research was carried out in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines. 17 eligible articles were included in the final quantitative analysis. Current study revealed that tocotrienol consumption was not associated with CRP, WC, MDA, BMI, IL-6, HbA1C, ALT, AST, creatinine TNF-α, FPG, BW, DBP, and SBP. We did observe an overall increase in BW (SMD: 0.063 kg, 95% CI: -0.200, 0.327, p = 0.637) and DBP (SMD: 0.249 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.053, 0.446, p = 0.013). In addition, a significant reduction in SBP was observed (SMD: -0.616 mmHg, 95% CI: -1.123, -0.110, p = 0.017). In summary, our meta-analysis revealed that tocotrienol consumption was associated with increase in BW and DBP and decrease in SBP. Significant associations were not observed for other outcomes.

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Inhibition of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid biosynthesis by vitamin E analogs in human and bovine cytochrome P450 microsomes

Matthew J Kuhn, Lorraine M Sordillo

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) . 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13547. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Dairy cattle are predisposed to disease around the time of calving due to dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Oxylipids are lipid-derived mediators that regulate all aspects of the inflammatory response, and shifts in oxylipid profiles are correlated with disease risk. For example, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) is an oxylipid derived from cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450) found at significantly greater concentrations around calving and during clinical disease. Biosynthesis of 20-HETE occurs almost exclusively from two specific CYP450 of which CYP450 family four sub-family F member two (CYP4F2) is the major contributor to 20-HETE production in humans. To further study the activities of 20-HETE and potentially reduce its production in vivo, mitigation methods must be explored. Additional substrates of CYP4F2, such as vitamin E, are known to both increase and decrease the metabolism of other CYP4F2 substrates. This study aimed to determine whether vitamin E analogs may reduce the production of 20-HETE through competition for CYP4F2 activity in human CYP4F2, bovine-kidney and bovine-mammary microsomes. Gamma-tocopherol reduced 20-HETE production from human and bovine-kidney microsomes (35.3% and 27.5%, respectively) whereas γ-tocotrienol only reduced 20-HETE production from human microsomes (40.1%). Finally, bovine-mammary microsomes did not produce a quantifiable amount of 20-HETE, suggesting basal mammary CYP4F2 activity may not be a significant contributor to 20-HETE found in milk. Together, these data show that analogs of vitamin E can reduce the production of 20-HETE, potentially through competition with arachidonic acid for metabolism by CYP4F2, posing a potential means for limiting 20-HETE production during clinical diseases of dairy cattle.

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The Combination of Berberine, Tocotrienols and Coffee Extracts Improves Metabolic Profile and Liver Steatosis by the Modulation of Gut Microbiota and Hepatic miR-122 and miR-34a Expression in Mice

Valentina Cossiga, Vincenzo Lembo, Cecilia Nigro, Paola Mirra, Claudia Miele, Valeria D'Argenio, Alessia Leone, Giovanna Mazzone, Iolanda Veneruso, Maria Guido, Francesco Beguinot, Nicola Caporaso, Filomena Morisco

Nutrients . 2021 Apr 13;13(4):1281. doi: 10.3390/nu13041281.

Abstract

Non-alcoholic-fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is spreading worldwide. Specific drugs for NAFLD are not yet available, even if some plant extracts show beneficial properties. We evaluated the effects of a combination, composed by Berberis Aristata, Elaeis Guineensis and Coffea Canephora, on the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, insulin-resistance and on the modulation of hepatic microRNAs (miRNA) levels and microbiota composition in a mouse model of liver damage. C57BL/6 mice were fed with standard diet (SD, n = 8), high fat diet (HFD, n = 8) or HFD plus plant extracts (HFD+E, n = 8) for 24 weeks. Liver expression of miR-122 and miR-34a was evaluated by quantitativePCR. Microbiome analysis was performed on cecal content by 16S rRNA sequencing. HFD+E-mice showed lower body weight (p < 0.01), amelioration of insulin-sensitivity (p = 0.021), total cholesterol (p = 0.014), low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (p < 0.001), alanine-aminotransferase (p = 0.038) and hepatic steatosis compared to HFD-mice. While a decrease of hepatic miR-122 and increase of miR-34a were observed in HFD-mice compared to SD-mice, both these miRNAs had similar levels to SD-mice in HFD+E-mice. Moreover, a different microbial composition was found between SD- and HFD-mice, with a partial rescue of dysbiosis in HFD+E-mice. This combination of plant extracts had a beneficial effect on HFD-induced NAFLD by the modulation of miR-122, miR-34a and gut microbiome.

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Dietary Annatto-Extracted Tocotrienol Reduces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress, and Improves Macronutrient Metabolism in Obese Mice: A Metabolic Profiling Study

Chwan-Li Shen, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M Dufour, Rui Wang, Huanbiao Mo, Bruce A Watkins

Nutrients . 2021 Apr 13;13(4):1267. doi: 10.3390/nu13041267.

Abstract

Obesity and its related complications are a world-wide health problem. Dietary tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and gut dysbiosis. This study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of TT alters metabolites of oxidative stress and improves systemic metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD control) or HFD supplemented with 800 mg annatto-extracted TT/kg (HFD+TT800) for 14 weeks. Sera from obese mice were examined by non-targeted metabolite analysis using UHPLC/MS. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD+TT800 group had higher levels of serum metabolites, essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholine, lysophospholipids, and vitamins (pantothenate, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, and retinol). TT-treated mice had lowered levels of serum metabolites, dicarboxylic fatty acids, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers (trimethylamine N-oxide, kynurenate, 12,13-DiHOME, and 13-HODE + 9-HODE) compared to the control. The results suggest that TT supplementation lowered inflammation and oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione and GSH/GSSH) and improved macronutrient metabolism (carbohydrates) in obese mice. Thus, TT actions on metabolites were beneficial in reducing obesity-associated hypercholesterolemia/hyperglycemia. The effects of a non-toxic dose of TT in mice support the potential for clinical applications in obesity and metabolic disease.

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Application of Partial Hydrogenation for the Generation of Minor Tocochromanol Homologs and Functional Evaluation of Hydrogenated Tocotrienol-rich Vitamin E Oil in Diabetic Obese Mice

Fumiaki Beppu, Aimi Sakuma, Satoshi Kasatani, Yoshinori Aoki, Naohiro Gotoh

J Oleo Sci . 2021;70(1):103-112. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess20233.

Abstract

Recent research has identified minor homologs of vitamin E with one or two double bonds in the side-chain, namely tocomonoenol (T1) and tocodienol (T2), in natural products. We first explored the effectiveness of partial hydrogenation for generating minor tocochromanols from tocotrienol (T3). During hydrogenation with pure α-T3 as a substrate, the side-chain was partially saturated in a time-dependent manner, and a large amount of α-T1 and α-T2 was obtained. To investigate the beneficial effects of the hydrogenated product, we fed diabetic obese KK-A y mice with a hydrogenated T3 mixture (HT3). Feeding HT3 revealed tissue-specific accumulation of tocochromanols, ameliorated hyperglycemia and improved ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol in serum, with invariant body weight and fat mass. Hence, we propose that hydrogenation is a useful method for generating T1 and T2 homologs, which can be applied to explore the structure-related function of tocochromanols.

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Mechanisms Mediating Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Delta-Tocotrienol and Tart Cherry Anthocyanins in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Lexie Harlan, London T Mena, Latha Ramalingam, Shasika Jayarathne, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa

Nutrients . 2020 Oct 30;12(11):3356. doi: 10.3390/nu12113356.

Abstract

Chronic low-grade inflammation is a primary characteristic of obesity and can lead to other metabolic complications including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several anti-inflammatory dietary bioactives decrease inflammation that accompanies metabolic diseases. We are specifically interested in delta-tocotrienol, (DT3) an isomer of vitamin E, and tart cherry anthocyanins (TCA), both of which possess individual anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously demonstrated that DT3 and TCA, individually, reduced systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in rodent models of obesity. However, whether these compounds have combinatorial effects has not been determined yet. Hence, we hypothesize that a combined treatment of DT3 and TCA will have great effects in reducing inflammation in adipocytes, and that these effects are mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), a major inflammatory transcription factor. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and treated them with 1-5 µM doses of DT3 along with tart cherry containing 18-36 µg anthocyanin/mL, to assess effects on inflammation. Neither DT3 nor TCA, nor their combinations had toxic effects on adipocytes. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and p-65 (subunit of NFkB) were reduced at the protein level in media collected from adipocytes with both individual and combined treatments. Additionally, other downstream targets of NFkB including macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Mip2), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) were also significantly downregulated (p ≤ 0.05) when treated with individual and combined doses of DT3 and TCA with no additional combinatorial effects. In summary, DT3 and TCA individually, are beneficial in reducing inflammation with no additional combinatorial effects.

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Negative Correlation Between Vitamin A and Positive Correlation Between Vitamin E and Inflammation Among Healthy Adults in Korea: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016-2018 7th Edition

Ki-Hong Hong, Young Lee

J Inflamm Res . 2020 Oct 29;13:799-811. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S265856. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Purpose: Vitamins exert its effect through different isoforms. The isoform conversion phases involved are affected outside factors. Here, we investigated the correlation between serum retinol, α-tocopherol, and serum inflammatory markers using stratified data acquired from 2016 to 2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

Materials and methods: This study was based on data acquired from the 7th edition (2016-2018) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, consisting of survey data on smoking and alcohol drinking, serum retinol level, serum α-tocopherol level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and baseline characteristics.

Results: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in alcohol drinking men. There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP in the alcohol-nonsmoking female group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking group. There was a positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP in the nonsmoking and alcohol-drinking female group. There was positive correlation between vitamin A and E and metabolic syndrome. The lowest vitamin A level was observed in subjects with all five metabolic syndrome criteria matched.

Conclusion: There was a negative correlation between serum retinol and hs-CRP and positive correlation between α-tocopherol and hs-CRP. Absorption and secretion of serum retinol are affected by inflammation status through retinol-binding protein. Alcohol acts as a competitive inhibitor of vitamin A oxidation through alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH activity. Smoking causes inflammation and induces reactive oxygen species scavenging system and increases cytochrome p450 levels. These factors may have contributed to the observed findings. Metabolic syndrome subjects increased as the levels of vitamin A and vitamin E increased. Since obesity is inversely related to ALDH activity, we postulate that patients with metabolic syndrome may also have low ALDH activity, especially in the Asian population. Future studies are warranted to study the efficacy of ALDH or ALDH inducers in patients with vitamin A deficiency or metabolic syndrome.

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Supplementation with Resveratrol, Piperine and Alpha-Tocopherol Decreases Chronic Inflammation in a Cluster of Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

Raúl Francisco Pastor, Marisa Gabriela Repetto, Fabiana Lairion, Alberto Lazarowski, Amalia Merelli, Zulma Manfredi Carabetti, Isabel Pastor, Elena Pastor, Laura Valeria Iermoli, Carlos Amadeo Bavasso, Roberto Héctor Iermoli

Nutrients . 2020 Oct 15;12(10):E3149. doi: 10.3390/nu12103149.

Abstract

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide regardless of culture, genetic, gender, and geographic differences. While multiple individual risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, can cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is the intercurrence of these risk factors that defines MetS as a cluster that creates an environment for atherosclerosis and other manifestations of CVD. Despite the advances in the knowledge and management of each of the components of MetS, there are two molecular biology processes, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which are still underdiagnosed and undertreated. In order to assess the effect of a dietary supplement on chronic inflammation in MetS, we conducted a clinical trial with volunteers receiving a formula composed of resveratrol, piperine and alpha tocopherol (FRAMINTROL®), together with their habitual treatment, for three months. The inflammatory state was evaluated by ultrasensitive C reactive protein (US CRP) and ferritin in plasma, and oxygen consumption and chemiluminescence in neutrophils. The results showed that ferritin decreased by 10% (p < 0.05), US-CRP by 33% (p < 0.0001), oxygen consumption by 55% (p < 0.0001), and spontaneous chemiluminiscence was by 25% (p < 0.005) after treatment. As far as we know, this is the first study showing a chronic inflammation decrease in MetS patients due to the administration of a biopower Resveratrol-piperine and alpha tocopherol dietary supplement together with conventional therapy.

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The effects of royal jelly and tocotrienol-rich fraction on impaired glycemic control and inflammation through irisin in obese rats

Pardis Irandoost, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari, Atoosa Saidpour, Farzad Shidfar, Neda Roshanravan, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Farnaz Farsi, Nazanin Asghari Hanjani, Mohammadreza Vafa

J Food Biochem . 2020 Oct 5;e13493. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13493. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The effects of royal jelly (RJ) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on obesity-induced glucose intolerance and inflammation were assessed in the current study. Regarding irisin as an important adipomyokine that attenuates obesity-induced disorders, we evaluated whether RJ and TRF could exert their metabolism regulatory effects through irisin. Obese rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without supplementation of RJ, TRF, or both, for 8 weeks. At the end of the intervention, weight, irisin, glycemic, and inflammatory indices were measured. The weight of the rats did not remarkably reduce in any of the groups. Glucose homeostasis and inflammation were improved when we added RJ and TRF to HFD. RJ elevated irisin concentration, but the effect of TRF on irisin was not noticeable. Our results indicated that, despite the lack of significant weight loss, RJ and TRF promoted healthy obesity. This improvement was mediated by irisin in RJ consuming rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Obesity is a public health concern associated with several chronic disorders. The beneficial effects of irisin on obesity-related disorders are well-established. It is the first study assessing the effect of RJ and TRF as functional foods, with pharmacological and nutritional activities on obesity complications, through irisin mediation. Our study demonstrated that RJ exerts its metabolic regulatory effects by irisin as a mediator. Our investigation makes a remarkable contribution to the literature, because it suggests a new mechanism for the anti-obesity properties of RJ and TRF.

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