Statins are HMGCoA reductase inhibitors and had been demonstrated to stimulate bone formation in rodents after high oral doses. Observational studies on patients treated with oral statins were varied. Delta-tocotrienol had been found to stimulate the cleavage of HMGCoA reductase and inhibit its activity. Tocotrienols were found to have both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone in different animal models of osteoporosis. The current study aimed to ascertain the effects of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on biochemical and static bone histomorphometric parameters in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses. 48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1) baseline control group; (2) sham-operated control group; (3) ovariectomised control group; (4) ovariectomised and 11 mg/kg lovastatin; (5) ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol; (6) ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol + 11 mg/kg lovastatin. These treatments were given daily via oral gavage for 8 weeks. Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women.


Oxidative stress and apoptosis can disrupt the bone formation activity of osteoblasts which can lead to osteoporosis. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of γ-tocotrienol on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, and apoptosis of osteoblast exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Osteoblasts were treated with 1, 10, and 100 μM of γ-tocotrienol for 24 hours before being exposed to 490 μM (IC(50)) H(2)O(2) for 2 hours. Results showed that γ-tocotrienol prevented the malondialdehyde (MDA) elevation induced by H(2)O(2) in a dose-dependent manner. As for the antioxidant enzymes assays, all doses of γ-tocotrienol were able to prevent the reduction in SOD and CAT activities, but only the dose of 1 μM of GTT was able to prevent the reduction in GPx. As for the apoptosis assays, γ-tocotrienol was able to reduce apoptosis at the dose of 1 and 10 μM. However, the dose of 100 μM of γ-tocotrienol induced an even higher apoptosis than H(2)O(2). In conclusion, low doses of γ-tocotrienol offered protection for osteoblasts against H(2)O(2) toxicity, but itself caused toxicity at the high doses.

The aim of this study was to investigate the most important oxidation products of α-tocotrienol (α-T3) along with other tocochromanols in lipid matrices and tocotrienol-rich foods. For this purpose, an efficient molecular distillation procedure was developed for the extraction of analytes, and α-T3-spiked and thermally oxidized natural lipids (lard and wheat germ oil) and α-T3-rich foods (wholemeal rye bread and oil from dried brewer’s spent grain) were investigated through HPLC-DAD-F. The following α-T3 oxidation products were extractable from lipid matrices along with tocochromanols: α-tocotrienolquinone (α-T3Q), α-tocotrienolquinone-4a,5-epoxide (α-T3Q-4a,5-E), α-tocotrienolquinone-7,8-epoxide (α-T3Q-7,8-E), 7-formyl-β-tocotrienol (7-FβT3), and 5-formyl-γ-tocotrienol (5-FγT3). Recovery rates were as high as 88% and enrichment factors up to 124. The proposed method allows the investigation of α-T3Q, α-T3Q-4a,5-E, α-T3Q-7,8-E, 7-FβT3, and 5-FγT3 in small quantities (<0.78 μg/g) in lipid matrices, which is necessary for the investigation and analysis of the formation kinetics of these oxidation products in fat, oils, and tocotrienol-rich foods.