Vitamin E Effects on Developmental Disorders in Fetuses and Cognitive Dysfunction in Adults Following Acrylamide Treatment During Pregnancy

Zeynep Erdemli, Mehmet Erman Erdemli, Yusuf Turkoz, Birgul Yigitcan, Mehmet Arif Aladag, Yilmaz Cigremis, Rumeyza Hilal Cırık, Eyup Altinoz, Harika Gozukara Bag

Biotech Histochem . 2020 Apr 29;1-9. doi: 10.1080/10520295.2020.1751880.


We investigated the effects of acrylamide (AA) and vitamin E treatment during pregnancy on brain tissues of fetuses and on adult rats. Pregnant rats were divided into five groups: control, corn oil, vitamin E, AA, vitamin E +AA. The rats administered AA received10 mg/kg/day and those administered vitamin E received 100 mg/kg/day both by via oral gavage for 20 days. On day 20 of pregnancy, half of the pregnant rats were removed by cesarean section in each group. Morphological development parameters were measured in each fetus and histopathological, biochemical and genetic analyses were conducted on the fetuses. The remaining pregnant rats in each group gave birth to the fetuses vaginally and biochemical, histopathological, genetic and cognitive function tests were conducted when the pups were 8 weeks old. AA administration caused adverse effects on fetus number, fetal weight, crown-rump length, placenta and brain weight. AA negatively affected malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, total oxidant and antioxidant status, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, brain tissue morphology, histopathology error score and gene expression (BDNF/β-actin mRNA ratio) in fetuses. AA administration caused disruption of biochemical, histopathological and cognitive functions in adult rats. Vitamin E provided protection against neurotoxicity in both fetuses and adult rats. We conclude that exposure to AA during pregnancy should be avoided and adequate amounts of antioxidants, such as vitamin E, should be consumed.

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Do Antioxidant Vitamins Prevent Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review

María Martinez-Ferran, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carl J Lavie, Giuseppe Lippi, Helios Pareja-Galeano

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2020 Apr 29;9(5):E372. doi: 10.3390/antiox9050372.


Free radicals produced during exercise play a role in modulating cell signaling pathways. High doses of antioxidants may hamper adaptations to exercise training. However, their benefits are unclear. This review aims to examine whether vitamin C (VitC) and/or vitamin E (VitE) supplementation (SUP) prevents exercise-induced muscle damage. The PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched, and 21 articles were included. Four studies examined the effects of acute VitC SUP given pre-exercise: in one study, lower CK levels post-exercise was observed; in three, no difference was recorded. In one study, acute VitE SUP reduced CK activity 1 h post-exercise in conditions of hypoxia. In three studies, chronic VitE SUP did not reduce CK activity after an exercise session. Chronic VitE SUP did not reduce creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after three strength training sessions, but it was effective after 6 days of endurance training in another study. Chronic SUP with VitC + E reduced CK activity post-exercise in two studies, but there was no such effect in four studies. Finally, three studies described the effects of chronic VitC + E SUP and long-term exercise, reporting dissimilar results. To conclude, although there is some evidence of a protective effect of VitC and/or VitE against exercise-induced muscle damage, the available data are not conclusive.

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Nanotechnology Might Help Fight Deadly ‘Cytokine Storm’ of COVID-19

For many COVID-19 patients battling for their lives in the ICU, a runaway immune system response — known as a “cytokine storm” — is their primary foe. Doctors have few tools to help tame this hyperinflammatory condition, but early research is suggesting that nanotechnology might safely deliver drugs to affected tissues, quieting the storm.

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Effects of Maternal Dietary Vitamin E on the Egg Characteristics, Hatchability and Offspring Quality of Prolonged Storage Eggs of Broiler Breeder Hens

Jun Yang, Xuemei Ding, Shiping Bai, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Huanwei Peng, Zhuowei Su, Yue Xuan, Gregory Scott Fraley, Keying Zhang

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) . 2020 Apr 28. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13371.


This research aims to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin E (VE) dietary supplementation on the egg characteristics, hatchability and antioxidant status of the embryo and newly hatched chicks of prolonged storage eggs. A total of 576 75-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were randomly allocated into three dietary VE treatments (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) with 6 replicates of 32 hens, for a 12-week feeding trial. At week 12, a total of 710 eggs were collected over a 5-day period, and eggs per treatment were attributed into 5 replicates and stored for 14 days until incubation. The egg yolk, trunk and head of 7-day-old embryo and the serum, liver, brain and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks were sampled for the evaluation of antioxidant status. Results showed that as maternal dietary VE levels increased, yolk α-tocopherol concentration increased (p < .05). Compared with 100 mg/kg VE, the use of 200 and 400 mg/kg VE increased the hatchability of set/fertile eggs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of liver and serum in chicks (p < .05), and decreased both the early embryonic mortality and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of trunk and head in 7-day-old embryos (p < .05); moreover, 400 mg/kg VE increased the yolk T-AOC (p < .05) and decreased yolk and brain MDA content of chicks (p < .05). Brain T-AOC of chicks in 200 mg/kg VE group was improved compared to that of chicks in 100 mg/kg VE group (p < .05). In conclusion, maternal dietary VE at 200 or 400 mg/kg could increase hatchability by decreasing early embryonic mortality and increasing the antioxidant status of egg yolk, embryo and newly hatched chicks as breeder egg storage was prolonged to 14-18 days. The suitable VE level for the broiler breeder diet was 200 mg/kg as breeder egg storage was prolonged.

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Lactational changes of fatty acids and fat-soluble antioxidants in human milk from healthy Chinese mothers

Wu K, Zhu J, Zhou L, Shen L, Mao Y, Zhao Y, Gao R, Lou Z, Cai M, Wang B

Br J Nutr. 2020 Apr 28;123(8):841-848. doi: 10.1017/S0007114520000239. Epub 2020 Jan 22.


Human milk fat is specially tailored to supply the developing infant with adequate and balanced nutrients. The present study aimed to quantify the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids in human milk, with special emphasis on the lactational changes. Colostrum, transitional and mature milk samples were collected longitudinally from the same forty-two healthy, well-nourished Chinese mothers. Fatty acids were quantified by GC with carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) and tocopherols (α-, γ-tocopherol) determined by HPLC. Total fatty acid (TFA) content increased from 15·09 g/l in colostrum to 32·57 g/l in mature milk with the percentages of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) decreased. The ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA and ARA:DHA remained constant during lactation at about 11:1 and 1·3:1, respectively. Both α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased over lactation with the ratio of α-:γ-tocopherol declined significantly from 7·21:1 to 4·21:1 (P < 0·001). Carotenoids all dropped from colostrum to mature milk as the less polar carotenes dropped by 88·67 %, while xanthophylls only dropped by 35·92 %. Lutein was predominated in both transitional and mature milk carotenoids (51·64-52·49 %), while colostrum carotenoids were mainly composed of lycopene (32·83 %) and β-carotene (30·78 %). The concentrations of tocopherols and xanthophylls but not carotenes were positively associated with TFA content in milk. These results suggested that colostrum and mature milk contained divergent lipid profiles and selective transfer mechanisms related to polarity might be involved. The present outcomes provide new insights for future breast-feeding studies, which also add in scientific evidences for the design of both initial and follow-on infant formulas.

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Impact of Vitamin E Supplementation on Vascular Function in Haptoglobin Genotype Stratified Diabetes Patients (EVAS Trial): A Randomised Controlled Trial

Rinkoo Dalan, Liuh Ling Goh, Chien Joo Lim, Aruni Seneviratna, Huiling Liew, Cherng Jye Seow, Lian Xia, Daniel E K Chew, Melvin K S Leow, Bernhard O Boehm

Nutr Diabetes . 2020 Apr 27;10(1):13. doi: 10.1038/s41387-020-0116-7.


Aims: Vitamin E (Vit-E) may preferentially improve cardiovascular risk in haptoglobin 2-2 (Hp2-2) genotype diabetes individuals. We studied the impact of Vit-E supplementation on vascular function in diabetes individuals stratified by haptoglobin genotype in Singapore.

Methods: In this 24-week, double blind, placebo-controlled RCT, we recruited 187 subjects (101 Hp2-2, 86 non-Hp2-2).

Intervention: alpha-tocopherol-400 IU.

Primary outcome: Change in EndoPAT-derived reactive-hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIx); Secondary Outcomes: Pulse-Wave velocity (Sphygmocor-PWV), carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), inflammation (hsCRP), derivatives of reactive-oxygen metabolites (dROMs), biological antioxidant-potential (BAPs), HbA1c, LDL-C, HDL-C and oxidised LDL-C (ox-LDL).

Results: Overall, with Vit-E supplementation no significant change in RHI, PWV, CIMT, hsCRP, dROMS, BAPs, HDL-C and HbA1c was observed (p > 0.05); an increase in LDL-C with concomitant decrease in ox-LDL, and incidentally increase in eGFR was observed (p < 0.05). No interaction effect with haptoglobin genotype was seen for all outcomes (p > 0.05). Subgroup analysis: In the non-Hp-2-2 group, Vit-E supplementation led to a higher EndoPAT-derived AIx, accompanied by higher LDL and ox-LDL concentrations (p < 0.05); Hp2-2 group: Vit-E supplementation led to higher eGFR when compared to the non-Hp2-2 group (exploratory) (p < 0.05). We observed an interaction effect for baseline haptoglobin concentration (threshold > 119 mg/dl) with intervention in terms of increased EndoPAT-derived AIx in the Hp > 119 mg/dl group whereas no change in the group with Hp ≤ 119 mg/dl.

Conclusion: Vit-E supplementation did not show any preferential benefit or deleterious effect on vascular function in Hp2-2 diabetes subjects in Singapore. A possible deleterious effect of an increase in arterial stiffness in individuals with Hp > 119 mg/dl was observed. Future studies should consider personalisation based on baseline Hp concentrations in patients with T2DM rather than just Hp2-2 genotype to evaluate impact on the detailed lipid pathways, cardiac and renal physiology. The impact of ethnic differences needs to be explored in greater details.

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Application of Vitamin E Acetate on Staple Lines and Anastomoses of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Impact on Postoperative Pain and Acute Phase Reactants

Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Alejandro Garcia, Carlos Ferrigni, Manuel Duran

Obes Surg . 2020 Apr 27. doi: 10.1007/s11695-020-04635-9.


Purpose: Postoperative pain after laparoscopic surgery has 3 components: parietal, visceral, and associated with pneumoperitoneum. Visceral pain accounts for around 30% of the total pain and is less amenable to be controlled by multimodal analgesia. The topical application of vitamin E ointment has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect in the local inflammatory response against surgical aggression. Vitamin E has been also associated with a reduction in postoperative pain of skin wounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of vitamin E acetate on staple lines and anastomoses of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, as part of a multimodal analgesia scheme within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.

Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients receiving a topical application of vitamin E on staple lines and anastomoses (G1) and patients not receiving it (G2). The primary endpoint was postoperative pain, as measured by VAS 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes include morphine rescue needs, acute phase reactants 24 h after surgery, and hospital stay.

Results: One hundred forty patients were included, 70 in each group. Postoperative pain was 10 mm in G1 and 21.8 mm in G2 (p < 0.001). Morphine needs within the first 24 h were 2.9% in G1 and 13.2% in G2 (p = 0.026). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in G1 (8.7 mg/dL vs 11.9; p = 0.016). Mean hospital stay was 2.1 days in G1 and 2.9 in G2 (p = 0.019).

Conclusion: Topical application of vitamin E reduces postoperative pain and acute phase reactants, allowing an earlier discharge.

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Protective Effects of Vitamin E on Aluminium Sulphate-Induced Testicular Damage

Ozal Ulfanov, Nazli Cil, Esat Adiguzel

Toxicol Ind Health . 2020 Apr 24;748233720919663. doi: 10.1177/0748233720919663.


Male infertility can be caused by environmental factors, genetic defects, physiological and endocrine deficiencies and testicular pathologies. Aluminium (Al) can cause male infertility through a number of mechanisms. The aim of our study was thus to determine whether vitamin E (VitE) has protective effects on Al-induced testicular damage, which was determined according to sperm counts and morphology and using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Thirty-four male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly assigned to control (no procedures performed; n = 6) or 0.2 mL intraperitoneal injection group (n = 7 each; three times per week for 4 weeks): sham (distilled water), 10 mg/kg Al, 500 mg/kg VitE and 10 mg/kg Al plus 500 mg/kg VitE (Al + VitE). Sperm samples were evaluated for andrological parameters. The testes were examined by haematoxylin/eosin. The epithelial thickness and areas were calculated and Johnsen scores were determined for the germinal epithelium; the apoptotic indices were determined from TUNEL staining. For Al, the bonds between the germinal epithelial cells were broken in some tubules, and there were unidentified cells in the lumen of some tubules. For control, sham and VitE, normal morphology of the germinal epithelium was generally preserved. With Al + VitE, the full germinal epithelium cell series was maintained, with only mature sperm in the lumen. TUNEL-positive cells were significantly higher with Al compared to control and sham (p < 0.05). For Al + VitE, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced compared to Al alone and was therefore similar to control, sham and VitE (p > 0.05). Our findings show that Al caused testicular damage. VitE reduced the number of apoptotic cells during the damage caused by Al.

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Dual Receptor-Targeted and Redox-Sensitive Polymeric Micelles Self-Assembled From a Folic Acid-Hyaluronic Acid-SS-Vitamin E Succinate Polymer for Precise Cancer Therapy

Yue Yang, Yunjian Li, Kai Chen, Ling Zhang, Sen Qiao, Guoxin Tan, Fen Chen, Weisan Pan

Int J Nanomedicine . 2020 Apr 24;15:2885-2902. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S249205.


Purpose: Poor site-specific delivery and insufficient intracellular drug release in tumors are inherent disadvantages to successful chemotherapy. In this study, an extraordinary polymeric micelle nanoplatform was designed for the efficient delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) by combining dual receptor-mediated active targeting and stimuli response to intracellular reduction potential.

Methods: The dual-targeted redox-sensitive polymer, folic acid-hyaluronic acid-SS-vitamin E succinate (FHSV), was synthesized via an amidation reaction and characterized by 1H-NMR. Then, PTX-loaded FHSV micelles (PTX/FHSV) were prepared by a dialysis method. The physiochemical properties of the micelles were explored. Moreover, in vitro cytological experiments and in vivo animal studies were carried out to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of polymeric micelles.

Results: The PTX/FHSV micelles exhibited a uniform, near-spherical morphology (148.8 ± 1.4 nm) and a high drug loading capacity (11.28% ± 0.25). Triggered by the high concentration of glutathione, PTX/FHSV micelles could quickly release their loaded drug into the release medium. The in vitro cytological evaluations showed that, compared with Taxol or single receptor-targeted micelles, FHSV micelles yielded higher cellular uptake by the dual receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, thus leading to significantly superior cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tumor cells but less cytotoxicity in normal cells. More importantly, in the in vivo antitumor experiments, PTX/FHSV micelles exhibited enhanced tumor accumulation and produced remarkable tumor growth inhibition with minimal systemic toxicity.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that this well-designed FHSV polymer has promising potential for use as a vehicle of chemotherapeutic drugs for precise cancer therapy.

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L-Carnitine and Vitamin E Ameliorate Cardiotoxicity Induced by Tilmicosin in Rats

Mohamed Aboubakr, Faten Elsayd, Ahmed Soliman, Sabreen Ezzat Fadl, Anwar El-Shafey, Ehab Yahya Abdelhiee

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int . 2020 Apr 23. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-08919-6.


The present study aimed to investigate the possible mitigating effect of L-carnitine (LC) and/or α-tocopherol (Vit. E) administration against tilmicosin (TIL)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Fifty-six male albino rats were divided into seven groups according to LC, Vit. E, and/or TIL administration. Control, LC, and Vit. E groups were given saline, 150 mg LC/kg body weight (BW)/day and 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW/day, respectively, orally once daily for 15 days. The TIL group was administered saline orally once daily for 15 days and a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg BW) subcutaneously (SC) on day 14 from the starting of the experimental period (15 days). The TIL-LC, TIL-Vit. E, and TIL-LC-Vit. E groups received 150 mg LC/kg BW/day, 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW/day, and 150 mg LC/kg BW pulse 100 mg Vit. E/kg BW, respectively, orally once daily for 15 days with TIL as described above. The results revealed that the administration of TIL significantly (P ≤ 0.05) raised serum activities of heart injury indicators, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB with substantial increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the cardiac contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased in antioxidants. The pathological changes appeared in the form of necrotic muscle fibers and massive inflammatory cellular infiltrations in the cardiac muscle and increased the caspase-3 immunohistochemical expression in the heart tissues as well. These changes were ameliorated by LC and/or Vit. E administration. In conclusion, supplementation of LC and/or Vit. E ameliorated the cardiotoxicity of the TIL SC injection in the rat.

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