Efficacy of vitamin E in protection against methotrexate induced placental injury in albino rats

Sara Mohamed Naguib Abdel Hafez, Eman Elbassuoni, Walaa Yehia Abdelzaher, Nermeen N Welson, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Khalid J Alzahrani, Fatma Alzhraa Fouad Abdelbaky

Biomed Pharmacother . 2021 Jul;139:111637. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111637. Epub 2021 May 6.

Abstract

Methotrexate (MXT) is a chemotherapeutic drug that has been used in a wide range of clinical practices. Unfortunately, the administration of MXT during pregnancy may induce abortion, fetal deformities, and intrauterine growth retardation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant agent that can ameliorate free radical damage. The current work aimed to shed more light on the possible protective effect of vitamin E against MXT induced placental toxicity and to determine the possible mechanisms; biochemically, histologically, and immunohistochemically. Four groups were used: control pregnant, Vitamin E (VIT E) pregnant, Methotrexate (MXT) pregnant, and Vitamin E Methotrexate (VIT E-MXT) pregnant. The placental tissues were processed for light, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Other samples were obtained for biochemical study; the placental oxidant/antioxidant status was evaluated. The results showed that MXT caused various placental morphological changes in the form of distorted chorionic projection with an accumulation of hemosiderin granules in the trophoblastic cells. Maternal blood vessels showed a homogenous acidophilic material Edema of the extra-embryonic fetal membranes was noticed. A significant decreased in placental weight as well as increase in the oxidative and inflammatory markers were detected. Increased COX2 and decreased eNOS expressions were observed in the MXT group if compared to the control group. VIT E significantly restored the normal histological and immunohistochemical appearance, placental weight, and oxidant/antioxidant balance. It could be concluded the biochemical, morphological, and morphometric findings suggested that vitamin E coadministration is promising in attenuating the placental toxic effect of methotrexate. In this study, VIT E decreased the inflammatory and oxidative stress effect of methotrexate on the placental tissue by enhancing the level of eNOS.

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Mechanisms underlying protective effects of vitamin E against mycotoxin deoxynivalenol-induced oxidative stress and its related cytotoxicity in primary human brain endothelial cells

Pochuen Shieh, Shu-Shong Hsu, Wei-Zhe Liang

Environ Toxicol . 2021 Jul;36(7):1375-1388. doi: 10.1002/tox.23133. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Abstract

Fusarium mycotoxins are one of the largest families of mycotoxins. Among these mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol is the most widespread pollutant of grains. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of deoxynivalenol on cytotoxicity in human brain endothelial cells was still unclear. This study examined whether deoxynivalenol induced oxidative stress-associated cytotoxicity in primary human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i), and explored whether Vitamin E (VE), a selective antioxidant, had protective effects on deoxynivalenol-treated cells. Deoxynivalenol (10-50 μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity in HBEC-5i cells. Deoxynivalenol (IC50 = 20 μM) activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by modulating antioxidant protein expressions (Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1). More significantly, pre-treatment with VE (20 μM) attenuated the deoxynivalenol-induced cytotoxicity in this cell model. Together, VE significantly alleviated the apoptotic effects of deoxynivalenol in HBEC-5i cells suggesting that it protected the cells against deoxynivalenol-induced oxidative damage. Our findings provided new insight that VE had the potential to ameliorate neurotoxicity of deoxynivalenol.

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Effect of vitamin E on periodontitis: Evidence and proposed mechanisms of action

Saminathan Shadisvaaran, Kok-Yong Chin, Mohd-Said Shahida, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, Xin-Fang Leong

J Oral Biosci . 2021 Jun;63(2):97-103. doi: 10.1016/j.job.2021.04.001. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a noncommunicable inflammatory disease of the soft tissue and bone surrounding the teeth in the jaw, which affects susceptible individuals with poor oral hygiene. A growing interest has been seen in the use of dietary supplements and natural products for the treatment and prevention of periodontitis. Vitamin E consists of two major groups, namely tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are botanical lipophilic compounds with excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

Highlight: This review aimed to summarize the preclinical and clinical findings on the effects of vitamin E on periodontitis. The current literature suggests that vitamin E could improve the periodontal status by correcting redox status imbalance, reducing inflammatory responses, and promoting wound healing, thus highlighting the potential of vitamin E in the management of periodontitis.

Conclusion: Direct evidence for the use of vitamin E supplementation or treatment of periodontitis in humans is still limited. More well-designed and controlled studies are required to ascertain its effectiveness.

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Associations between vitamin E, oxidative stress markers, total homocysteine levels, and physical activity or cognitive capacity in older adults

Ahmad H Alghadir, Sami A Gabr, Shahnawaz Anwer, Heng Li

Sci Rep . 2021 Jun 18;11(1):12867. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92076-4.

Abstract

This study examined the associations between vitamin E, oxidative stress markers, total homocysteine levels, and physical activity or cognitive capacity in older adults. One hundred and six older adults (62 men, 44 women) within the age range of 56-81 years participated. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment were used to assess physical activity and cognitive function, respectively. Vitamin E (e.g., α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), oxidative stress markers (e.g., total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide), and total homocysteine were estimated. There were significant associations between physical activity (high versus moderate versus poor) and all biomarkers (all p = 0.000, and p = 0.010 for γ-tocopherol). While total homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity were significantly associated with cognitive capacity (p = 0.000), vitamin E levels (e.g., α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) and nitric oxide (p = 0.354, 0.103 and 0.060, respectively) were not related to cognitive capacity in older adults. This study concludes that physical activity was associated with Vitamin E, oxidative stress markers, total homocysteine, and cognitive capacity in older adults. Although cognitive capacity was associated with total homocysteine and total antioxidant capacity, it was unrelated to vitamin E levels and nitric oxide in older adults.

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The effect of vitamin E treatment on selected immune and oxidative parameters in Kivircik ewes suffering from transport stress

Erdem Danyer, Tanay Bilal, Ayşen Altiner, İsmail Aytekin, Hasan Atalay

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) . 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13560. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E injection for the prevention of transport stress on ewes. Kivircik ewes (2-3 years old, n = 24) were randomly separated into three groups; G1 (Control) and G2 treated with 14 ml. saline as the placebo, G3 treated with 2100 IU/ind. DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate prior to transport. G2 and G3 were transported at 80 km/h for 4 h on a truck. Serum samples were obtained before (T0) and after (T1) transport. Serum cortisol, catalase, IgG, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, complement component 4, interleukin-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde analyses performed by ELISA, and serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-UV. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical assessments (p < 0.05). Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were founded 1.22 ± 0.82, 0.27 ± 0.14 and 0.14 ± 0.07 µmol/L, respectively, in G1, G2 and G3 at T1. Alpha-tocopherol concentration decreased significantly in G2 between T0 and T1. GPx concentrations were increased twofold in G2 and G3 between T0 and T1 (p < 0.01). As a result, G2 alpha-tocopherol concentrations decreased but, the stress and oxidative parameters tested in this study were not affected by treating 2100 IU/ind. DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate before transport.

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Vitamin A and Vitamin E: Will the Real Antioxidant Please Stand Up?

William S Blaner, Igor O Shmarakov, Maret G Traber

Annu Rev Nutr . 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124228. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Vitamin A, acting through its metabolite, all-trans-retinoic acid, is a potent transcriptional regulator affecting expression levels of hundreds of genes through retinoic acid response elements present within these genes. However, the literature is replete with claims that consider vitamin A to be an antioxidant vitamin, like vitamins C and E. This apparent contradiction in the understanding of how vitamin A acts mechanistically within the body is a major focus of this review. Vitamin E, which is generally understood to act as a lipophilic antioxidant protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids present in membranes, is often proposed to be a transcriptional regulator. The evaluation of this claim is another focus of the review. We conclude that vitamin A is an indirect antioxidant, whose indirect function is to transcriptionally regulate a number of genes involved in mediating the body’s canonical antioxidant responses. Vitamin E, in addition to being a direct antioxidant, enables the increase of peroxidized lipids that alter both metabolic pathways and gene expression profiles within tissues and cells. However, there is little compelling evidence that vitamin E has a direct transcriptional mechanism like that of vitamin A. Thus, we propose that the term antioxidant not be applied to vitamin A, and we discourage the use of the term transcriptional mediator when discussing vitamin E.

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Gene Expression of CRAL_TRIO Family Proteins modulated by Vitamin E Deficiency in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

Alexander T Watt, Brian Head, Scott W Leonard, Robyn L Tanguay, Maret G Traber

J Nutr Biochem . 2021 Jun 10;108801. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108801. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

An evaluation of the impact of vitamin E deficiency on expression of the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and related CRAL_TRIO genes was undertaken using livers from adult zebrafish based on the hypothesis that increased lipid peroxidation would modulate gene expression. Zebrafish were fed either a vitamin E sufficient (E+) or deficient (E-) diet for 9 months, then fish were euthanized, and livers were harvested. Livers from the E+ relative to E- fish contained 40-times more α-tocopherol (P<0.0001) and one fourth the malondialdehyde (P = 0.0153). RNA was extracted from E+ and E- livers, then subject to evaluation of gene expression of ttpa and other genes of the CRAL_TRIO family, genes of antioxidant markers, and genes related to lipid metabolism. Ttpa expression was not altered by vitamin E status. However, one member of the CRAL_TRIO family, tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 9 gene (ptpn9a), showed a 2.4-fold increase (P=0.029) in E- relative to E+ livers. Further, we identified that the gene for choline kinase alpha (chka) showed a 3.0-fold increase (P=0.010) in E- livers. These outcomes are consistent with our previous findings that show vitamin E deficiency increased lipid peroxidation causing increases in phospholipid turnover.

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Dietary share of ultra-processed foods and its association with vitamin E biomarkers in Brazilian lactating women

N C M Amorim, A G C L Silva, A S Rebouças, D S Bezerra, M S R Lima, J F Pires, L C P Liberalino, R Dimenstein, K D S Ribeiro

Br J Nutr . 2021 Jun 9;1-23. doi: 10.1017/S0007114521001963. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Despite evidence showing that the intake of ultra-processed food has a negative impact on health, diet quality and dietary vitamin E, its impact on vitamin E nutritional status and breast milk remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the influence of the consumption of ultra-processed foods on vitamin E biomarkers of lactating women. A cross-sectional study was performed with 294 lactating women. Food consumption was obtained by 24-hour dietary recall and foods were grouped according to the NOVA classification. Levels of alpha-tocopherol were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Breast milk vitamin E (BMVE) adequacy was based on the quantity of the vitamin in the estimated intake volume. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the tertiles and linear regression to association between ultra-processed food consumption and biomarkers. Ultra-processed foods accounted for 16% of energy intake and vitamin E intakes by all women were considered low. Serum alpha-tocopherol was 26.55 (SD 7.98) µmol/L, 5% (n=11) showed inadequate vitamin E (<12µmol/L), and 78% had an inadequate BMVE content (< 4mg/780mL). The regression showed that a higher dietary share of ultra-processed foods was associated with lower concentrations of serum alpha-tocopherol (β=-0.168, CI=-0.047-0.010, p=0.003) and inadequate BMVE content (β=-0.144, CI=-0.505-0.063, p=0.012) (adjustment for income and maternal age). Thus, higher dietary shares of ultra-processed foods had an impact on vitamin E biomarkers, suggesting that inadequate dietary intake practices during lactation may reduce the supply of vitamin E to women and breast milk.

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Administration of vitamin E attenuates airway inflammation through restoration of Nrf2 in a mouse model of asthma

Quang Luu Quoc, Tra Cao Thi Bich, Seo-Hee Kim, Hae-Sim Park, Yoo Seob Shin

J Cell Mol Med . 2021 Jun 4. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.16675. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence reveals that ROS is one of the key mediators that contribute to the development of asthma. Studies on antioxidants have shown to have beneficial effects on asthma management. However, we still do not know the precise mechanism, and the effects depend on age. This study was conducted to assess the levels of ROS and the effect of antioxidants in younger and older mice using an eosinophilic asthma model. We analyzed airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inflammatory cell counts, and the expression levels of NFκB, Nrf2, EPx, and EDN in the lung tissue, as well as the level of ROS in the lung tissue and BALF. The degree of eosinophilia and the levels of IL-5, ROS, and NFκB were significantly increased, whereas the endogenous levels of vitamin E and Nrf2 were decreased in the lung and BALF in the older mice compared to younger mice. The administration of vitamin E attenuated AHR, airway inflammation, and the level of IL-13 and ROS and enhanced the Nrf2 level in the older mice compared to the younger mice. Taken together, vitamin E treatment may have the therapeutic potential through restoration of the Nrf2 level, especially in elderly asthma.

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Tocotrienols: Dietary Supplements for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Xiangming Ji, Hongwei Yao, Maureen Meister, Douglas S Gardenhire, Huanbiao Mo

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2021 May 31;10(6):883. doi: 10.3390/antiox10060883.

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two major phenotypes of COPD, which have many symptoms, such as dyspnea, chronic cough, and mucus overproduction. Emphysema is characterized by the destruction of the alveolar wall, while chronic bronchitis is characterized by limitations in expiratory airflow. Cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor for the pathogenesis of COPD in the developed world. Chronic inflammation contributes to the onset and progression of the disease and furthers the risk of comorbidities. Current treatment options and prevention strategies for COPD are very limited. Tocotrienols are a group of vitamin E molecules with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Individual tocotrienols (α, γ, and δ) have shown their ability to attenuate inflammation specifically via suppressing nuclear factor-κB-mediated cytokine production. The δ- and γ-forms of tocotrienols have been indicated as the most effective in the prevention of macrophage infiltration, production of reactive oxygen species, and cytokine secretion. This review briefly discusses the pathogenesis of COPD and the role of inflammation therein. Furthermore, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of tocotrienols and their potential application to COPD management. Coupled with the bioavailability and safety profile of tocotrienols, the ability of these compounds to modulate COPD progression by targeting the inflammation pathways renders them potential candidates for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of COPD patients.

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