Oat ( Avena sativa) Extract against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Human Keratinocytes

Sooji Song, Yoon-Mi Lee, Yu Young Lee, Kyung-Jin Yeum

Molecules . 2021 Sep 13;26(18):5564. doi: 10.3390/molecules26185564.


Oat (Avena sativa) is well known for its various health benefits. The protective effect of oat extract against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes HaCaT was determined. First, extracts of two varieties of oat, Daeyang and Choyang, were analyzed for fat-soluble antioxidants such as α-tocotrienol, γ-oryzanols, lutein and zeaxanthin using an UPLC system and for antioxidant activity using a DPPH assay. Specifically, an 80% ethanol extract of Daeyang oat (Avena sativa cv. Daeyang), which had high amounts of antioxidants and potent radical scavenging activity, was further evaluated for protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, the phosphorylation of DNA damage mediating genes such as H2AX, checkpoint kinase 1 and 2, and p53 and the activation of apoptotic genes such as cleaved caspase-3 and 7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in HaCaT cells. The Daeyang and Choyang oat 80% ethanol extracts had 26.9 and 24.1 mg/100 g γ-oryzanols, 7.69 and 8.38 mg/100 g α-tocotrienol, 1.25 and 0.34 mg/100 g of lutein and 1.20 and 0.17 mg/100 g of zeaxanthin, respectively. The oat 80% ethanol extract treatment (Avena sativa cv. Daeyang) had a protective effect on oxidative stress-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. In addition, the oat 80% ethanol extracts led to a significant decrease in the intracellular ROS level at a concentration of 50-200 μg/mL, the attenuation of DNA damage mediating genes and the inhibition of apoptotic caspase activities in a dose dependent manner (50-200 μg/mL). Thus, the current study indicates that an oat (Avena sativa cv. Daeyang) extract rich in antioxidants, such as polyphenols, avenanthramides, γ-oryzanols, tocotrienols and carotenoids, has a protective role against oxidative stress-induced keratinocyte injuries and that oat may a useful source for oxidative stress-associated skin damage.

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In vitro antiaging evaluation of sunscreen formulated from nanostructured lipid carrier and tocotrienol-rich fraction

Chee Chin Chu, Zafarizal Aldrin Bin Azizul Hasan, Chin Ping Tan, Kar Lin Nyam

J Pharm Sci . 2021 Aug 20;S0022-3549(21)00423-8. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.08.020.


Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to photoaging. There is a tremendous rise in products having a dual activity of photoprotection and antiaging. In vitro analysis in dermal fibroblasts and their biological mechanisms involved are critical to determine antiaging potential. The study aimed to investigate the antiaging potential of sunscreen formulated from nanostructured lipid carrier and tocotrienol-rich fraction (NLC-TRF sunscreen). The antioxidant activity of the NLC-TRF sunscreen was evaluated by radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide inhibition properties. Also, collagenase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition activities, and type I collagen and elastin protein expression were studied. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I collagen (COL1A1), elastin (ELN), MMP-1, MMP-2, and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The results suggested that NLC-TRF sunscreen is effective in radical, anti-hydrogen peroxide, and collagenase, elastase and MMP-1 inhibition activities. Besides, a significant increase for type I collagen (3.47-fold) and elastin (2.16-fold) protein and fibroblast regeneration genes (FGF (2.12-fold), VEGF (1.91-fold), TGF-β1 (2.84-fold), TIMP-1 (1.42-fold), ELN (2.13-fold)) were observed after sample treatment. These findings support the therapeutic potential of NLC-TRF sunscreen in antiaging.

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Controlled Release of the α-Tocopherol-Derived Metabolite α-13′-Carboxychromanol from Bacterial Nanocellulose Wound Cover Improves Wound Healing

Jessica Hoff, Berit Karl, Jana Gerstmeier, Uwe Beekmann, Lisa Schmölz, Friedemann Börner, Dana Kralisch, Michael Bauer, Oliver Werz, Dagmar Fischer, Stefan Lorkowski, Adrian T Press

Nanomaterials (Basel) . 2021 Jul 28;11(8):1939. doi: 10.3390/nano11081939.


Inflammation is a hallmark of tissue remodeling during wound healing. The inflammatory response to wounds is tightly controlled and well-coordinated; dysregulation compromises wound healing and causes persistent inflammation. Topical application of natural anti-inflammatory products may improve wound healing, in particular under chronic pathological conditions. The long-chain metabolites of vitamin E (LCM) are bioactive molecules that mediate cellular effects via oxidative stress signaling as well as anti-inflammatory pathways. However, the effect of LCM on wound healing has not been investigated. We administered the α-tocopherol-derived LCMs α-13′-hydroxychromanol (α-13′-OH) and α-13′-carboxychromanol (α-13′-COOH) as well as the natural product garcinoic acid, a δ-tocotrienol derivative, in different pharmaceutical formulations directly to wounds using a splinted wound mouse model to investigate their effects on the wounds’ proinflammatory microenvironment and wound healing. Garcinoic acid and, in particular, α-13′-COOH accelerated wound healing and quality of the newly formed tissue. We next loaded bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), a valuable nanomaterial used as a wound dressing with high potential for drug delivery, with α-13′-COOH. The controlled release of α-13′-COOH using BNC promoted wound healing and wound closure, mainly when a diabetic condition was induced before the injury. This study highlights the potential of α-13′-COOH combined with BNC as a potential active wound dressing for the advanced therapy of skin injuries.

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Topical cream containing nanoparticles with vitamin E to prevent radiodermatitis in women with breast cancer: a clinical trial protocol

Fernanda Mateus Queiróz Schmidt, Carol V Serna González, Rodrigo Calixto Mattar, Luciana Biagini Lopes, Marinilce Fagundes Dos Santos, Vera L C de Gouveia Santos

J Wound Care . 2021 Jun 1;30(Sup6):S44-S50. doi: 10.12968/jowc.2021.30.Sup6.S44.


Objective: Little is known about the efficacy of products aiming to prevent radiodermatitis, which affects between 90-95% of women with breast cancer. The use of antioxidants is promising, however, there is a lack of evidenceon their effectiveness. Here, the authors present a clinical trial protocol to evaluate the effects of applying a cream containing nanoparticles with vitamin E to prevent radiodermatitis in patients with breast cancer.

Method: The protocol recommends that 108 women with breast cancer, receiving radiotherapy, are included in this triple-blinded, randomized, controlled study at an oncology hospital. Patients will be divided in three groups of 36 individuals each: group A will receive a cream with lipid nanoparticles and vitamin E, group B will receive a cream without nanoparticles nor vitamin E, and group C will receive a cream with nanoparticles without vitamin E. The primary endpoints will evaluate the incidence, degree, and time of onset of radiodermatitis. The secondary endpoints will focus on the quality of life, symptoms, and local temperature. Patients will be assessed three times a week, from the start of their radiotherapy treatment to two weeks after the last session. This protocol was approved by the research ethics committee of the institutions involved and registered on an international trials database.

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An evaluation of tocotrienol ethosomes for transdermal delivery using Strat-M ® membrane and excised human skin

Rajesh Sreedharan Nair, Nashiru Billa, Chee-Onn Leong, Andrew P Morris

Pharm Dev Technol . 2021 Feb;26(2):243-251. doi: 10.1080/10837450.2020.1860087. Epub 2020 Dec 15.


Tocotrienol (TRF) ethosomes were developed and evaluated in vitro for potential transdermal delivery against melanoma. The optimised TRF ethosomal size ranged between 64.9 ± 2.2 nm to 79.6 ± 3.9 nm and zeta potential (ZP) between -53.3 mV to -62.0 ± 2.6 mV. Characterisation of the ethosomes by ATR-FTIR indicated the successful formation of TRF-ethosomes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrated the spherical shape of ethosomes, and the entrapment efficiencies of all the formulations were above 66%. In vitro permeation studies using full-thickness human skin showed that the permeation of gamma-T3 from the TRF ethosomal formulations was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the control. The cumulative amount of gamma-T3 permeated from TRF ethosome after 48 hours was 1.03 ± 0.24 µg cm-2 with a flux of 0.03 ± 0.01 µg cm-2 h-1. Furthermore, the flux of gamma-T3 across the Strat-M ® and the epidermal membrane was significantly higher than that across full-thickness human skin (p < 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity studies on HaCat cells showed significantly higher cell viability than the pure drug solution (p < 0.05). The enhanced skin permeation and high cell viability associated with this formulation suggest a promising carrier for transdermal delivery.

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Advancing skin delivery of α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol for dermatitis treatment via nanotechnology and microwave technology

Mohd Saufi Harun, Tin Wui Wong, Chee Wai Fong

Int J Pharm . 2021 Jan 25;593:120099. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.120099. Epub 2020 Nov 28.


This study investigated combination nanocarrier and microwave system for α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol delivery against dermatitis, without skin thinning effect of steroids. The vitamin E was formulated into water-rich/water-poor nanoemulsions, and had their droplet size, zeta potential, morphology, therapeutic content, encapsulation efficiency and release, in vitro skin therapeutics/nanoemulsion penetration, retention and permeation profiles, and in vivo pharmacodynamics characteristics examined, with skin pre-treated by precision microwave when applicable. The nanoemulsions had droplet sizes <150 nm and negative zeta potential values. The skin pre-treatment by microwave (1 mW/3985 MHz) promoted therapeutics accumulation in epidermis through enhancing nanoemulsion penetration into skin. The combination nano- and microwave technologies fluidized skin lipid and protein domains with epidermal microstructures being fluidized to a greater extent than dermis, allowing a relatively high epidermal-to-dermal nanoemulsion distribution. Microwave of lower or higher than 3985 MHz brought about lower skin therapeutics/nanoemulsion accumulation due to insufficient lipid/protein domain fluidization or microwave-skin interaction limiting at skin surfaces only. Using water-rich nanoemulsion with higher therapeutic release and skin pre-treatment with 3985 MHz microwave, dermatitis was alleviated in vivo without skin thinning of standard steroid. The use of combination microwave and nanotechnology promotes vitamin delivery and translates to positive dermatitis treatment outcome that warrants future investigation.

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Epidermal Growth Factor and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Cream Formulation Accelerates Burn Healing Process Based on Its Gene Expression Pattern in Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Wound Model

Hui-Fang Guo, Razana Mohd Ali, Roslida Abd Hamid, Sui Kiat Chang, Mohammed Habibur Rahman, Zaida Zainal, Huzwah Khaza'ai

Int J Low Extrem Wounds . 2020 Nov 26;1534734620971066. doi: 10.1177/1534734620971066. Online ahead of print.


Our previous study has demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) cream formulation accelerating postburn wound healing with deep partial-thickness burn in rats. Current study was conducted to determine the gene expression levels related to burn wound healing process. A total of 180 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated control, treated with Silverdin cream, base cream, base cream with 0.00075% EGF, base cream with 3% TRF or base cream with 0.00075% EGF, and 3% TRF, respectively. Burn wounds were created and the above-mentioned creams were applied once daily. Six animals from each group were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 11, 14, and 21 postburn. RNA was extracted from wound tissues and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the 9 wound healing-related genes against time postburn. Results demonstrated that topically applied EGF + TRF formulation downregulated the expression levels of IL-6 (interluekin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) throughout the whole healing process. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β) and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor-A) were reduced on day 14 postburn. On the contrary, increased expression of Collagen-1 in the early stage of wound healing was observed with no effects on epidemal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The results showed beneficial application of EGF + TRF cream in the treatment of burn wound since it accelerated wound healing by relieving oxidative stress, decreasing inflammation, and promoting proper tissue modelling in the burn wound.

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Vitamin E attenuates the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in mice

Liang Ruan, Peng Yang, Shuang-Ping Chen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu

Australas J Dermatol . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/ajd.13492. Online ahead of print.

Research Letter

Systemic sclerosis, is a progressive connective tissue disease characterised by extensive fibrosis and affects skin as well as various internal organs.1 Skin fibrosis, a highly recognised feature of systemic sclerosis, causes significant physical disability and psychological disorder but is difficult to treat.2 Recently, vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, has been demonstrated to exert anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in some fibrotic diseases.3-5 This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on skin fibrosis in bleomycin-induced mouse model of scleroderma and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

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Vitamin E in Atopic Dermatitis: From Preclinical to Clinical Studies

Cheryl Wei Ling Teo, Shawn Han Yueh Tay, Hong Liang Tey, Yee Wei Ung, Wei Ney Yap

Dermatology . 2020 Oct 16;1-12. doi: 10.1159/000510653. Online ahead of print.


Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are some of the proposed mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Current pharmacotherapeutic approaches are effective yet they are not without adverse effects. Vitamin E has great potential as an adjunctive treatment for AD owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities.

Summary: This review article summarizes the current available evidence from cellular, animal and clinical studies on the relationship between vitamin E and AD. The future prospects of vitamin E are also discussed. Vitamin E in practice does not show any toxicity to humans within a range of reasonable dosage. Albeit rarely, vitamin E as a contact allergen should be considered. Collectively, this review envisaged vitamin E as an adjunctive treatment for AD patients. Future research on the distinct effects of different vitamin E isoforms as well as their delivery system in skin disorders is needed.

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Isotretinoin and α-tocopherol acetate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle topical gel for the treatment of acne

Shivani Gupta, Sarika Wairkar, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt

J Microencapsul . 2020 Sep 24;1-9. doi: 10.1080/02652048.2020.1823499. Online ahead of print.


Aims: This study was aimed to develop Isotretinoin (ITN) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TA) loaded solid lipid nanoparticle topical gel for better skin sensitivity and potentiation of efficacy.

Methods: ITN and α-TA-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (AE-SLN) were prepared by microemulsion method with glyceryl mono-stearate as lipid and tween 80: butanol as surfactantmix and characterised. AE-SLN gel was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, drug release, skin irritation and anti-acne activity in rats.

Results: AE-SLNs had mean particle size of 193.4 nm (zeta-potential -29 mV) and entrapment efficiency of 84%w/w for ITN and 77.4%w/w for α-TA. AE-SLN gel showed sustained drug release for 24 h with a final cumulative release of 95.8% w/w and 89.1%w/w for ITN and α-TA. AE-SLN gel showed no erythema or edoema in rabbits and potent efficacy in rat model of acne.

Conclusion: In conclusion, AE-SLN gel has the potential to use as a non-irritant topical formulation for the treatment of acne.

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