Vitamin E attenuates the development of bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis in mice

Liang Ruan, Peng Yang, Shuang-Ping Chen, Changhao Wu, Qi-Xing Zhu

Australas J Dermatol . 2020 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/ajd.13492. Online ahead of print.

Research Letter

Systemic sclerosis, is a progressive connective tissue disease characterised by extensive fibrosis and affects skin as well as various internal organs.1 Skin fibrosis, a highly recognised feature of systemic sclerosis, causes significant physical disability and psychological disorder but is difficult to treat.2 Recently, vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, has been demonstrated to exert anti-fibrotic properties in vitro and in some fibrotic diseases.3-5 This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on skin fibrosis in bleomycin-induced mouse model of scleroderma and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

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Vitamin E in Atopic Dermatitis: From Preclinical to Clinical Studies

Cheryl Wei Ling Teo, Shawn Han Yueh Tay, Hong Liang Tey, Yee Wei Ung, Wei Ney Yap

Dermatology . 2020 Oct 16;1-12. doi: 10.1159/000510653. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are some of the proposed mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Current pharmacotherapeutic approaches are effective yet they are not without adverse effects. Vitamin E has great potential as an adjunctive treatment for AD owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities.

Summary: This review article summarizes the current available evidence from cellular, animal and clinical studies on the relationship between vitamin E and AD. The future prospects of vitamin E are also discussed. Vitamin E in practice does not show any toxicity to humans within a range of reasonable dosage. Albeit rarely, vitamin E as a contact allergen should be considered. Collectively, this review envisaged vitamin E as an adjunctive treatment for AD patients. Future research on the distinct effects of different vitamin E isoforms as well as their delivery system in skin disorders is needed.

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Isotretinoin and α-tocopherol acetate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle topical gel for the treatment of acne

Shivani Gupta, Sarika Wairkar, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt

J Microencapsul . 2020 Sep 24;1-9. doi: 10.1080/02652048.2020.1823499. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Aims: This study was aimed to develop Isotretinoin (ITN) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TA) loaded solid lipid nanoparticle topical gel for better skin sensitivity and potentiation of efficacy.

Methods: ITN and α-TA-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (AE-SLN) were prepared by microemulsion method with glyceryl mono-stearate as lipid and tween 80: butanol as surfactantmix and characterised. AE-SLN gel was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, drug release, skin irritation and anti-acne activity in rats.

Results: AE-SLNs had mean particle size of 193.4 nm (zeta-potential -29 mV) and entrapment efficiency of 84%w/w for ITN and 77.4%w/w for α-TA. AE-SLN gel showed sustained drug release for 24 h with a final cumulative release of 95.8% w/w and 89.1%w/w for ITN and α-TA. AE-SLN gel showed no erythema or edoema in rabbits and potent efficacy in rat model of acne.

Conclusion: In conclusion, AE-SLN gel has the potential to use as a non-irritant topical formulation for the treatment of acne.

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The Efficacy of Amniotic Membrane Stem Cell (AMSC) Metabolite Product and Vitamin E for Wrinkles, Spots, and Pores in Photoaging

Rahmadewi Rahmadewi, Retha Retha, Dyah Ayu Pitasari, Vidyani Adiningtyas Kusumastanto, Agatha Anindita Ayu Ardhaninggar, Irmadita Citrashanty, Maylita Sari, Menul Ayu Umborowati, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa

Dermatol Res Pract . 2020 Aug 26;2020:1584541. doi: 10.1155/2020/1584541. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: It is expected that a combination of amniotic membrane stem cell metabolite product (AMSC-MP) and vitamin E after fractional CO2 laser as laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) will provide better effects in photoaging treatment as the combination reaches the target. This promises an option for photoaging therapy in the future.

Materials and methods: Sixty women with photoaged skins were involved in this experimental study. They were then divided into two groups. The treatment group received a topical combination of AMSC-MP and vitamin E, and the control group received AMSC-MP alone after fractional CO2 laser. The treatment was repeated three times.

Result: The Janus assessment results showed a significant difference in pores in the third observation, and the average pore improvements in the treatment group were better than the control group. Wrinkle, UV spot, and polar spot did not show any significant difference.

Conclusion: A combination of the amniotic membrane stem cell metabolite product (AMSC-MP) and vitamin E after fractional CO2 laser as LADD only improves pores in photoaged skins.

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The wonders of palm oil

Ahmad Parveez Ghulam Kadir

The Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)’s research and collaborations with local and overseas institutions have scientifically proven that palm-derived Vitamin E tocotrienols are important for human health as they can prevent many non-communicable diseases. Through the continuous and dedicated research conducted by MPOB, the health benefits of palm oil and its phyto-nutrients are being explored extensively.

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Summary and evidence grading of over-the-counter scar treatments

Konstantin V Grigoryan, Jeremy T Kampp

Int J Dermatol . 2020 Jul 20. doi: 10.1111/ijd.15060. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Many products claiming to improve scar appearance are readily available on the Internet. Data behind these claims are often difficult to find or summarize. Patients often ask their surgeon for advice for scarring postdermatologic surgery.

Objective: We aim to review the evidence behind several advertised products and techniques that claim to improve postsurgical scarring.

Methods: A PubMed search was performed using products and methods claiming to improve scar appearance along with the terms “scar” and “scarring”.

Results: Published literature on scar massage, taping of scars, silicone gel and sheeting, onion-based extract products, and vitamin E was reviewed. Silicone gel/sheeting as well as taping have the most evidence to help improve scarring, but even then the evidence is conflicting and weak.

Conclusion: Online advertising may tempt patients to buy and trial products to help minimize scarring, although the evidence for the effectiveness of these products is absent to minimal. Dermatologists must be aware of these products to maintain effective patient counseling.

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Suppression of Menthyl Anthranilate (UV-A Sunscreen)-Sensitized Singlet Oxygen Generation by Trolox and α-tocopherol

Shogo Kitasaka, Mikio Yagi, Azusa Kikuchi

Photochem Photobiol Sci . 2020 Jun 2. doi: 10.1039/d0pp00023j. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Menthyl anthranilate (MA, tradename meradimate) is a UV-A absorber. The interactions of ground-state molecular oxygen with the long-lived triplet state of MA produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. The quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation is 0.12 in air-saturated ethanol. Kinetic traces of the near-IR phosphorescence of singlet oxygen generated by MA-photosensitization have been measured in the absence and presence of Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E and a quencher of singlet oxygen) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E, a natural antioxidant) in ethanol. Fluorescence and transient absorption measurements suggest that Trolox and α-tocopherol quench the lowest excited singlet and triplet states of MA. As a result, Trolox and α-tocopherol suppress MA-photosensitized singlet oxygen generation. Not only the quenching of singlet oxygen but also the suppression of singlet oxygen generation is the mechanism of antioxidant properties of Trolox and α-tocopherol for MA. The ability of α-tocopherol to suppress the MA-photosensitized singlet oxygen generation in isododecane, used as a solvent for an oil-soluble UV absorber, is close to that in ethanol. Suppression of sunscreen-photosensitized singlet oxygen generation is an important method for the formulation of safe cosmetic sunscreens.

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Feasibility of Using Vitamin E-Loaded Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Gelatin Nanofibrous Mat to Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin

Kalantary S, Golbabaei F, Latifi M, Shokrgozar MA, Yaseri M

J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2020 Jun 1;20(6):3554-3562. doi: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17486.

Abstract

Some occupational skin exposures lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The occupational exposure of workers to ROS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing skin injuries; therefore, it is essential to protect skin against ROS formation. Recently, some studies have been conducted on introducing better alternatives for skin protection. Nanofibers are good candidates for this purpose. The current study was carried out to assess vitamin E-loaded hybrid Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin (Gt) nanofibres mats as protective layers of skin exposed to occupational exposures. Vitamin E (VE) was successfully incorporated into PCL/Gt nanofibers while they were formed by electrospinning method. Nanofibers mats were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Their degradation behavior, in vitro release, biocompatibility, and antioxidant activity were studied. The diameters of the PCL/Gt/VE nanofibers decreased with the addition of vitamin E. The degradation rate of nanofibers was equal to 42.98 and 50.69% during 7 and 14 days, respectively. Nanofibers containing vitamin E showed an initial burst followed by a sustained release. The PCL/Gt/VE nanofibers exhibited good free radical scavenging activities despite being exposed to a high electrical potential during electrospinning. PCL/Gt/VE nanofibers supported a higher level of viability compared to PCL/Gt ones and significantly assisted human skin cells against tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced oxidative stress. Overall, PCL/Gt/VE nanofibers can potentially be used to protect skin against oxidative stress as a novel approach for worker’s healthcare.

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Effect of Anoectochilus roxburghii flavonoids extract on H2O2 – Induced oxidative stress in LO2 cells and D-gal induced aging mice model

Wang L, Chen Q, Zhuang S, Wen Y, Cheng W, Zeng Z, Jiang T, Tang C

J Ethnopharmacol. 2020 May 23;254:112670. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112670. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Anoectochilus roxburghii (A. roxburghii) is a popular folk medicine in many Asian countries, which has been used traditionally for treatment of some diseases such as diabetes, tumors, hyperlipemia, and hepatitis. The ethanol extract from A. roxburghii was recently shown to exert better ability to scavenge free radicals in vitro and possess antioxidant on natural aging mice in vivo.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

This study is to characterize the chemical composition, and investigate the protective effect of the A. roxburghii flavonoids extract (ARF) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in LO2 cells in vitro and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging mice model in vivo, and explore the underlying mechanisms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The chemical components of the flavonoids extract fromA. roxburghii were detected by ultraperformance lipid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). H2O2 was used to establish an oxidative stress model in LO2 cells. Cytotoxic and protective effects of ARF on the LO2 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Moreover, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in cell supernatants were measured by commercial reagent kits. Kun-Ming mice were induced to aging with D-gal (400 mg/kg, BW) by subcutaneous injection for 58 days. From the 28th day to the 58th day of D-gal treatment, ARF (122.5, 245 and 490 mg/kg, BW) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW) were orally administrated to aging mice once a day for consecutive 30 days. After 25 days of the treatment with ARF, learning and memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM). At the end of the test period, the animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation, and the levels of SOD, GSH-PX, and MDA in serum, liver homogenates and brain homogenates were measured. The levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) were determined in brain homogenates. Skin and liver histopathological morphology were observed by H&E staining. Furthermore, antioxidant-related gene expression levels in the liver were carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

RESULTS:

Nine flavonoids were identified in the extracts of A. roxburghii. In vitro assay, a high concentration of ARF (>612.5 μg/ml) reduced the survival rate and had toxic effects on LO2 cells. In addition, ARF (245 μg/ml, 490 μg/ml) and Vitamin C (200 μg/ml) markedly inhibited generations of MDA and increased activities of SOD, GSH-PX in H2O2-induced LO2 cells supernatants. In vivo assay, ARF (122.5 mg/kg, 245 mg/kg and 490 mg/kg) and Vitamin E (100 mg/kg) not only ameliorated learning and memory ability but also improved skin and liver pathological alterations. Strikingly, ARF significantly decreased MDA and MAO levels, markedly enhanced antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-PX) activities. Further, compared to the D-gal group, ARF could obviously up-regulate glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) and glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPx-4) mRNA levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggested that ARF protects LO2 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and exerts the potent anti-aging effects in D-gal aging mice model, which may be related to the inhibition of oxidative stress. Flavonoid compounds may contribute to the anti-oxidative capability and modulating aging.

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Nodular Panniculitis in a Cat With High Alpha Tocopherol Concentration in Serum

Martin Steffl, Nadine Nautscher, Alexander Kröpfl, Michael Granvogl

Vet Med Sci . 2020 May 18. doi: 10.1002/vms3.286. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

A 5-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat suffered from recurrent solitary nodules in different subcutaneous body regions. Nodules were surgically removed and each time histopathological diagnosis was fat necrosis and fibrosing to pyogranulomatous panniculitis. After the second surgery the alpha (α)-tocopherol concentration in serum of the cat was examined and the result (21 mg/L) exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval (3-11 mg/L). Vitamin E amount in diet fed solely in the past was checked as studies have shown that vitamin E amounts in food significantly influence vitamin E concentrations in serum. For comparative purposes, α-tocopherol concentrations were determined in sera of healthy control cats. Additionally, vitamin E amount in wet food from different manufacturers was analysed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the diet did not have higher vitamin E amounts compared to other diets. All control cats had similar high serum α-tocopherol concentrations. We conclude that panniculitis can occur despite high serum α-tocopherol concentrations in cats. Further studies are needed to redefine reference values of α-tocopherol in serum of cats.

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