Ambient aerosol fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with male reproductive toxicity in experiments and may have adverse effects in the female. However, studies evaluating the protective effects and precise mechanisms of aspirin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or ozone against toxic effects of PM2.5are sparse. This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effects and mechanisms of aspirin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or ozone on fertility in female mice treated with PM2.5.
Eighty-four ICR mice were divided into six groups: control group, PM2.5group, PM2.5 + aspirin group, PM2.5 + Vitamin C group, PM2.5 + Vitamin E group, and PM2.5 + ozone group. PM2.5was given by intratracheal instillation every 2 days for 3 weeks. Aspirin, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E were given once a day by oral gavage for 3 weeks, and ozone was administered by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 3 weeks. The levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting analysis was used to analyze the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in ovaries. Changes in histological structure were examined by light microscope and electron microscopy was used to detect ultramicrostructure.
The results demonstrated that PM2.5 decreased AMH levels (P < 0.001); however, aspirin (P < 0.001), Vitamin C (P < 0.001), Vitamin E (P = 0.001), and ozone (P = 0.002) alleviated the decrease. Changes of IL-6, TNF-α, 8-OHdG, Bax/Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in PM2.5group were increased compared to control group (P < 0.001), while in PM2.5 + aspirin, PM2.5 + Vitamin C, PM2.5 + Vitamin E, and PM2.5 + ozone groups, they were statistically decreased compared to PM2.5group (P < 0.001 or P< 0.05).
PM2.5cause the damage of ovaries, and aspirin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and ozone antagonizes the damage. The protective mechanism is probably due to its ability to blunt the inflammatory and oxidative stress caused by PM2.5, which subsequently suppressing the expression of apoptotic regulatory protein and reducing the incidence of ovary apoptosis.