Characterization and Cytotoxicity of Polyprenol Lipid and Vitamin E-TPGS Hybrid Nanoparticles for Betulinic Acid and Low-Substituted Hydroxyl Fullerenol in MHCC97H and L02 Cells

Ran Tao, Chengzhang Wang, Yin Lu, Changwei Zhang, Hao Zhou, Hongxia Chen, WenJun Li

Int J Nanomedicine . 2020 Apr 22;15:2733-2749. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S249773.

Abstract

Background: This study demonstrated an innovative formulation including the polyprenol (GBP) lipid and vitamin E-TPGS hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) which was aimed to control the transfer of betulinic acid (BA) and low-substituted hydroxyl fullerenol (C60(OH)n). Additionally, it developed BA-C60(OH)n-GBP-TPGS-NPs delivery system and researched the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) effects.

Materials and methods: The NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation with ultrasonic-assisted emulsification (UAE) method. It was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectrum, size distribution and zeta potential. Physical and chemical properties were evaluated through measurement of drug release, stability studies, drug loading efficiency (DE) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). Biological activities were evaluated through measurement of MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay (LDH), cell proliferation assays, cell apoptosis analysis, comet assay, wound healing assay, cell invasion and Western blot analysis.

Results and conclusions: The NPs exhibited clear distribution characteristics, improved solubility and stability. BA and C60(OH)n for the NPs displayed a biphasic release pattern with sustained drug release properties. The mixture of C60(OH)n with different hydroxyl groups may have a certain effect on the stability of the NPs system itself. The NPs could effectively inhibit MHCC97H cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Combined use of C60(OH)n and BA in GBP lipids may improve the inhibit effect of C60(OH)n or BA against HCC cells and reduce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of C60(OH)n for normal cells. We concluded that one of the important mechanisms of BA-C60(OH)n-GBP-TPGS-NPs inhibiting MHCC97H cells is achieved by up-regulating the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9.

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Application of ɑ-Tocotrienol-Loaded Biocompatible Precirol in Attenuation of Doxorubicin Dose-Dependent Behavior in HUH-7 Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line

Tupal A, Sabzichi M, Bazzaz R, Fathi Maroufi N, Mohammadi M, Pirouzpanah SM, Ramezani F

Nutr Cancer. 2020;72(4):653-661. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2019.1650191. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Abstract

Tumor-targeted nanoparticle delivery system has been known as a substitute and capable achievement in cancer treatment compared to conventional methods. In this study, we examined potential application of ɑ-tocotrienol-Precirol formulation to enhance efficiency of doxorubicin (DOX) in induction of apoptosis in HUH-7 hepatocarcinoma cells. ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded nanoparticles were characterized at the point of zeta potential, particle size, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and cell internalization. To evaluate antiproliferative effects of formulation, apoptosis, cell cycle procedure, flow cytometry, and MTT assays were employed. Optimum size of the ɑ-tocotrienol formulation revealed narrow size distribution with mean average of 78 ± 3 nm. IC50 values for ɑ-tocotrienol and ɑ-tocotrienol-nano structured lipid carriers after 24 h were 15 ± 0.6 and 10 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. After incubation of cells with ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded careers, the rate of cell proliferation decreased from 53 ± 6.1 to 34 ± 7.1% (P < 0.05). A significant improvement in the apoptosis percentage was revealed after treatment of the HUH-7 cell line with DOX and ɑ-tocotrienol careers (P < 0.05). Gene expression results demonstrated a marked decrease in survivin and increase in Bid and Bax levels. Our findings suggest that ɑ-tocotrienol-loaded nanoparticles elevate DOX efficacy in HUH-7 hepatocarcinoma cell.

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Effect of vitamin E in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Amanullah I, Khan YH, Anwar I, Gulzar A, Mallhi TH, Raja AA

Postgrad Med J. 2019 Aug 21. pii: postgradmedj-2018-136364. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-136364. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The efficacy of vitamin E among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. The current qualitative and quantitative analyses aimed to ascertain the efficacy of vitamin E on clinical outcomes of patients with NAFLD. A systematic search of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Ovid) from inception to July 2018. Trials meeting the inclusion criteria were subjected to quality assessment using the Jadad Scoring. All trials meeting the prerequisites information for meta-analysis were subjected to quantitative synthesis of results. Nine RCTs (five in adults and four in children) were included. Four of the five RCTs on adults demonstrated significant improvements in alanine transaminase and other liver function surrogates in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, only one of the four RCTs conducted on children showed significant improvements in liver functions with the use of vitamin E. Although quantitative synthesis of available data revealed insignificant differences between vitamin E and placebo, still the use of vitamin E improves the level of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase by -1.96 and -0.59, with heterogeneity of I2=67% and I2=0%, respectively. Adjuvant vitamin E therapy provides significant biochemical and histological improvements in adult patients with NAFLD, while paediatric patients showed insignificant efficacy compared with placebo. Lifestyle interventions along with vitamin E can provide much better results. Data, including the impact of vitamin E on hepatic histology, are still lacking. Moreover, the short duration of trials limits the conclusion on the safety and efficacy of proposed treatments.

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Vitamin E Ameliorates Lipid Metabolism in Mice with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease via Nrf2/CES1 Signaling Pathway

He W, Xu Y, Ren X, Xiang D, Lei K, Zhang C, Liu D

Dig Dis Sci. 2019 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s10620-019-05657-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin E has been reported to have a beneficial effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the underlying mechanism of action has not yet been clearly defined.

AIM:

We aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of vitamin E on lipid and glucose homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro.

METHODS:

An NAFLD model was established in C57BL/6 mice fed a 30% fructose solution for 8 weeks. Subsequently, NAFLD mice were given vitamin E (70 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. In addition, L02 cells were treated with 5 mM fructose and 100 nM vitamin E to explore the potential mechanisms of action.

RESULTS:

Vitamin E reversed the impaired glucose tolerance of fructose-treated mice. Histopathological examination showed that liver steatosis was significantly relieved in vitamin E-treated mice. These effects may be attributed to the upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), and downregulated proteins involved in lipid synthesis by vitamin E treatment. In vivo, vitamin E also significantly reduced lipid accumulation in fructose-treated L02 cells, and the Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 reversed the protective effects of vitamin E.

CONCLUSION:

These data indicated that the therapeutic effects of vitamin E on lipid and glucose homeostasis may be associated with activation of the Nrf2/CES1 signaling pathway.

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Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Tocotrienols in Cancer: Recent Trends and Advancements

Aggarwal V, Kashyap D, Sak K, Tuli HS, Jain A, Chaudhary A, Garg VK, Sethi G, Yerer MB

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 2;20(3). pii: E656. doi: 10.3390/ijms20030656.

Abstract

Tocotrienols, found in several natural sources such as rice bran, annatto seeds, and palm oil have been reported to exert various beneficial health promoting properties especially against chronic diseases, including cancer. The incidence of cancer is rapidly increasing around the world not only because of continual aging and growth in global population, but also due to the adaptation of Western lifestyle behaviours, including intake of high fat diets and low physical activity. Tocotrienols can suppress the growth of different malignancies, including those of breast, lung, ovary, prostate, liver, brain, colon, myeloma, and pancreas. These findings, together with the reported safety profile of tocotrienols in healthy human volunteers, encourage further studies on the potential application of these compounds in cancer prevention and treatment. In the current article, detailed information about the potential molecular mechanisms of actions of tocotrienols in different cancer models has been presented and the possible effects of these vitamin E analogues on various important cancer hallmarks, i.e., cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation have been briefly analyzed.

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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, and cardiac dysfunction

Mathews SE, Kumar RB, Shukla AP

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2018 Oct;25(5):315-320. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000432.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are epidemiologically and pathophysiologically linked disorders. Here, we summarize the effect of obesity on NASH and how it has a cascading effect on cardiovascular dysfunction. We also review the current and emerging treatment options for NASH.

RECENT FINDINGS:

The link between NASH and cardiac dysfunction has been further delineated in recent studies demonstrating endothelial dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and increased coronary artery calcification in patients with known NASH. Standard treatment of obesity with lifestyle interventions including diet, exercise, and behavioral modification has been shown to improve NASH as well as reduce cardiovascular dysfunction. In addition to FDA-approved drugs like vitamin E and pioglitazone, several agents including NGM282, obeticholic acid, elafibranor, and liraglutide are currently being investigated for their therapeutic potential in NASH. Recent studies show that bariatric surgery results in significant improvement or resolution of NASH.

SUMMARY:

Obesity is a major factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to steatohepatitis. Patients with NAFLD have a significant increase in cardiovascular disease risk. For biopsy-proven NASH, vitamin E and pioglitazone are the recommended medical treatments in addition to lifestyle modification.

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α-Tocopherol transfer protein does not regulate the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of α- and γ-tocopherols and -tocotrienols in cultured liver cells

Irías-Mata A, Sus N, Flory S, Stock D, Woerner D, Podszun M, Frank J

Redox Biol. 2018 Aug 5;19:28-36. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.07.027. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Liver cells express a cytosolic α-tocopherol transfer protein (αTTP) with high binding affinity for α-tocopherol (αT) and much lower affinities for the non-αT congeners. The role of αTTP in the intracellular distribution of the different vitamin E forms is currently unknown. We therefore investigated the intracellular localization of αT, γ-tocopherol (γT), α-tocotrienol (αT3), and γ-tocotrienol (γT3) in cultured hepatic cells with and without stable expression of αTTP. We first determined cellular uptake of the four congeners and found the methylation of the chromanol ring and saturation of the sidechain to be important factors, with tocotrienols being taken up more efficiently than tocopherols and the γ-congeners more than the α-congeners, irrespective of the expression of αTTP. This, however, could perhaps also be due to an observed higher stability of tocotrienols, compared to tocopherols, in culture media rather than a higher absorption. We then incubated HepG2 cells and αTTP-expressing HepG2 cells with αT, γT, αT3, or γT3, isolated organelle fractions by density gradient centrifugation, and determined the concentrations of the congeners in the subcellular fractions. All four congeners were primarily associated with the lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane, whereas only αT correlated with mitochondria. Neither the chromanol ring methylation or sidechain saturation, nor the expression of αTTP were important factors for the intracellular distribution of vitamin E. In conclusion, αTTP does not appear to regulate the uptake and intracellular localization of different vitamin E congeners in cultured liver cells.

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Vitamin E status and its determinants in patients with cystic fibrosis

Sapiejka E, Krzyżanowska-Jankowska P, Wenska-Chyży E, Szczepanik M, Walkowiak D, Cofta S, Pogorzelski A, Skorupa W, Walkowiak J

Adv Med Sci. 2018 Aug 3;63(2):341-346. doi: 10.1016/j.advms.2018.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The risk of vitamin E deficiency is of primary concern in cystic fibrosis patients. However, early diagnosis and routine vitamin Esupplementation can lead to its normal or even high levels. In the present study, we assessed vitamin E status in a large group of cystic fibrosis patients. Moreover, we also aimed to establish determinants of its body resources in cystic fibrosis patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The study group comprised 211 cystic fibrosis patients aged from 1 month to 48 years. In all of them serum α-tocopherol concentration was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS:

Median vitamin E concentration was 9.9 μg/ml (1st-3rd quartile: 7.5-13.5). Vitamin E deficiency was found in 17 (8.0%) and high levels were documented in 24 (11.4%) participants. Patients with and without vitamin E deficiency did not differ significantly with respect to age, standardized body weight and height, FEV1, albumin concentration and vitamin E supplementation dose. However, vitamin E deficiency appeared more frequently in participants without vitamin E supplementation. Moreover, in multiple linear regression analysis pancreatic insufficiency, severe CFTR gene mutation and vitamin E dose, were potentially defined as determinants of vitamin E concentration.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin E deficiency in cystic fibrosis patients is rather rare nowadays. Excessive vitamin E levels seem to be more frequent. Vitamin E status wasn’t documented to be strictly related to clinical determinants. Beyond vitamin E supplementation, exocrine pancreatic function and CFTR gene mutations may have had an impact on the vitamin E body resources in cystic fibrosis patients.

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A 12-week evaluation of annatto tocotrienol supplementation for postmenopausal women: safety, quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake

Shen CL, Wang S, Yang S, Tomison MD, Abbasi M, Hao L, Scott S, Khan MS, Romero AW, Felton CK, Mo H

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Jun 28;18(1):198. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2263-0.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence suggests that tocotrienols may benefit bone health in osteopenic women. However, their safety in this population has never been investigated. This study was to evaluate the safety of a 12-week supplementation of annato tocotrienol in postmenopausal osteopenic women, along with effects of the supplementation on quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake in this population.

METHODS:

Eighty nine postmenopausal osteopenic women were randomly assigned to 3 treatment arms: (1) Placebo (430 mg olive oil/day), (2) Low tocotrientol (Low TT) (430 mg tocotrienol/day from DeltaGold 70 containing 300 mg tocotrienol) and (3) High tocotrienol (High TT) (860 mg tocotrienol/day from DeltaGold 70 containing 600 mg tocotrienol) for 12 weeks. DeltaGold 70 is an extract from annatto seed with 70% tocotrienol consisting of 90% delta-tocotrienol and 10% gamma-tocotrienol. Safety was examined by assessing liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), electrolytes, glucose, protein, albumin, and globulin at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Serum tocotrienol and tocopherol concentrations were assessed and pills counted at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and dietary macro- and micro-nutrient intake were evaluated at 0 and 12 weeks. A mixed model of repeated measures ANOVA was applied for analysis.

RESULTS:

Eighty seven subjects completed the study. Tocotrienol supplementation did not affect liver or kidney function parameters throughout the study. No adverse event due to treatments was reported by the participants. Tocotrienol supplementation for 6 weeks significantly increased serum delta-tocotrienol level and this high concentration was sustained to the end of study. There was no difference in serum delta-tocotrienol levels between the Low TT and the High TT groups. No effects of tocotrienol supplementation were observed on quality of life, body composition, physical activity, and nutrient intake.

CONCLUSIONS:

Annatto-derived tocotrienol up to 600 mg per day for 12 weeks appeared to be safe in postmenopausal osteopenic women, particularly in terms of liver and kidney functions. Tocotrienol supplementation for 12 weeks did not affect body composition, physical activity, quality of life, or intake of macro- and micro-nutrients in these subjects.

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Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis Effectively Treated with Vitamin E as an Add-on to Corticosteroids.

Miyashima Y, Shibata M, Honma Y, Matsuoka H, Hiura M, Abe S, Harada M

Intern Med. 2017 Oct 11. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.8767-16.

Abstract

A 49-year-old woman with a history of heavy alcohol drinking was admitted to our hospital due to jaundice and abdominal distention. A blood test showed leukophilia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatobiliary injury and coagulopathy. Image studies showed an extremely enlarged fatty liver and splenomegaly. The Japan alcoholic hepatitis score and Maddrey’s discriminant function were 10 and 54 points, respectively. We diagnosed her with severe alcoholic hepatitis and treated her with corticosteroids, but her liver function did not improve. We therefore administered the vitamin E product tochopheryl acetate (150 mg/day) as an add-on therapy, after which her leukophilia, liver enzymes and coagulopathy improved immediately.

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