Pressurized liquid extraction to obtain chia seeds oils extracts enriched in tocochromanols. Nanoemulsions approaches to preserve the antioxidant potential

Lucía Castro-Vázquez, Virginia Rodríguez-Robledo, María Plaza-Oliver, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, Joaquín González, Noemí Villaseca, Pilar Marcos, M Mar Arroyo-Jiménez

J Food Sci Technol . 2021 Oct;58(10):4034-4044. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04866-9. Epub 2021 Jan 5.


The objective of this study was to use accelerated-solvent-extraction to achieve antioxidant extracts from chia seeds oils, enriched in tocopherols and tocotrienols, namely tocochromanols. Nanotechnology applications have been also incorporated to develop an innovative formulation of chia seeds oil nanoemulsion that preserve its antioxidant potential after conditions of oxidative stress. Chia seeds oils proved to be a valuable source of tocochromanols, from 568.84 to 855.98 μg g-1, depending on the geographical provenance. Quantitative data obtained by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS showed outstanding levels of γ-Tocopherol, over 83%, followed far behind by Tocopherols-(α, β, δ) and Tocotrienols-(α, β, δ, γ)-tocotrienols. The characteristic tocochromanols fingerprint of chia seeds oils was positively correlated with the FRAP and DPPH antioxidant activity of the extracts (between 18.81 and 138.48 mg Trolox/g). Formulation of the Chia seeds oils as nanoemulsions did not compromised the antioxidant properties of fresh extracts. Interestingly, nanoemulsions retained about the 80% of the initial antioxidant capacity after UV-induced stress, where the non-emulsified oils displayed a remarkable reduction (50-60%) on its antioxidant capacity under the same conditions. These antioxidant chia seeds formulations can constitute a promising strategy to vectorizing vitamin E isomers, in order to be used for food fortification, natural additives and to increase the self-life of food products during packing.

Read More

Interactions between α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol in oil-in-water emulsions

Ruru Liu, Ying Xu, Ming Chang, Ruijie Liu, Xingguo Wang

Food Chem . 2021 Sep 15;356:129648. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129648. Epub 2021 Mar 22.


The interaction between antioxidants is affected by many factors, such as concentration, ratio and system. In this study, different concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol showed antagonistic effect in the oil-in-water emulsion, and the distribution of α-tocopherol increased in aqueous phase after combined with γ-oryzanol. The concentration could affect the degree of antagonism. According to fluorescence quenching, cyclic voltammetry measurements and the oxidative decomposition of antioxidants during storage, the inhibitory effect of γ-oryzanol on the regeneration of α-tocopherol was proposed to be responsible for the antagonism. This work can provide suggestions for studying the mechanism of antioxidant interaction in emulsion system.

Read More

Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Measurement of 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, Vitamin A, α-Tocopherol, and γ-Tocopherol

Yi Xiao, Edward Ki Yun Leung

Am J Clin Pathol . 2021 Aug 31;aqab088. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqab088. Online ahead of print.


Objectives: Fat-soluble vitamins are measured to identify deficiencies that may lead to rickets, osteomalacia, night blindness, and reversible motor and sensory neuropathies. We present a rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that simultaneously measures 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3), epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol.

Methods: We mixed 100 µL serum with internal standard and extracted it by using supported liquid extraction plates. Reconstituted specimens were analyzed by LC-MS/MS with a 10-minute gradient.

Results: The method was linear, covering physiological levels with r2 > 0.99, and the total precision was less than 15% at all quality control levels. The lower limit of the measuring intervals for 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were 4 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 1 µg/dL, 0.2 µg/mL, and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, with coefficient of variation of 20% or less. Recoveries were between 92% and 111% for National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials and 81% and 122% for spike-recovery studies. Comparison studies for vitamin D total, vitamin A, and α-tocopherol demonstrated slopes between 1.04 and 1.11 and r2 between 0.94 and 0.96. Minimal matrix effect was observed for all analytes.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous measurement of 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol.

Read More

Fruit tree leaves as valuable new source of tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds

Aneta Wojdyło, Igor Piotr Turkiewicz, Karolina Tkacz, Francisca Hernandez

J Sci Food Agric . 2021 Aug 16. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11481. Online ahead of print.


Background: Nowadays it is highly important to find new, cheap and widely available sources of tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds, and leaves are promising unconventional sources. The main goal of this study was to extend the currently limited knowledge concerning tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers composition determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection analysis for various fruit tree leaves such as apple, pear, quince, apricot, peach, plum, sour cherry and sweet cherry. The leaves were collected 2 weeks after tree blooming and after fruit collection. Tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers were identified and quantified for the first time in all fruit tree leaves.

Results: The total tocopherol content ranged from 203.34 to 260.86 μg g-1 dry weight for spring leaves and from 23.83 to 235.62 μg g-1 dry weight for autumn leaves and consisted mainly of α-tocopherol. The rest of the isomers of tocopherol and tocotrienols were also found, but in trace amounts. A significantly lower content of tocopherols and tocotrienols was detected in leaves after autumn collection of fruits compared to leaves collected after blooming. Among the analyzed leaves, time collected and species were significantly more important than their cultivars. Regarding quantification analysis, apricot > peach > > plums > apples leaves were identified as the best sources of tocopherols, and sweet and sour cherry leaves exhibited a lower content.

Conclusion: Fruit tree leaves are a novel significant source and good material for isolation of α-tocopherol for application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or in the food industry – for example, production of beverages or other functional foods.

Read More

A Fast and Efficient Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Tocopherols in Cow Milk Followed by HPLC Determination

Archimede Rotondo, Giovanna Loredana La Torre, Teresa Gervasi, Giacomo di Matteo, Mattia Spano, Cinzia Ingallina, Andrea Salvo

Molecules . 2021 Jul 30;26(15):4645. doi: 10.3390/molecules26154645.


A fast HPLC method with fluorescence detector (FD) was developed for the determination of three tocopherols (TOCs) in milk samples from Modicana cattle breed. The ultrasound-assisted procedure was optimized for the extraction of TOCs prior to HPLC/FD analysis, reducing sample preparation time and allowing a fast quantification of α-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol and γ tocopherol. The optimized ultrasonic extraction combines an efficient and simple saponification at room temperature and a rapid HPLC quantification of TOCs in milk. The precision of the full analytical procedure was satisfactory and the recoveries at three spiked levels were between 95.3% and 87.8%. The linear correlations were evaluated (R2 > 0.99) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values for intra-day and inter-day tests at three spiked levels were below 1% for the retention time and below 5.20% for the area at low level spiking. The proposed procedure, reducing the experimental complexity, allowed accurate extraction and detection of three TOCs in milk samples from Modicana cattle breed.

Read More

Vitamin E: A Review of Its Application and Methods of Detection When Combined with Implant Biomaterials

Francesca Gamna, Silvia Spriano

Materials (Basel) . 2021 Jul 1;14(13):3691. doi: 10.3390/ma14133691.


Vitamin E is a common compound used for tocopherols and tocotrienols (α, β, γ, δ); it is the component of many natural products of both plant and animal origin. Thanks to its powerful antioxidant capacity, vitamin E has been very successful in hip and knee arthroplasty, used to confer resistance to oxidation to irradiated UHMWPE. The positive results of these studies have made vitamin E an important object of research in the biomedical field, highlighting other important properties, such as anti-bacterial, -inflammatory, and -cancer activities. In fact, there is an extensive literature dealing with vitamin E in different kinds of material processing, drug delivery, and development of surface coatings. Vitamin E is widely discussed in the literature, and it is possible to find many reviews that discuss the biological role of vitamin E and its applications in food packaging and cosmetics. However, to date, there is not a review that discusses the biomedical applications of vitamin E and that points to the methods used to detect it within a solid. This review specifically aims to compile research about new biomedical applications of vitamin E carried out in the last 20 years, with the intention of providing an overview of the methodologies used to combine it with implantable biomaterials, as well as to detect and characterize it within these materials.

Read More

Progress in the study of D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) reversing multidrug resistance

Huixian Yan, Xiyou Du, Rujuan Wang, Guangxi Zhai

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces . 2021 Jun 8;205:111914.


Currently, multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major reasons for failure in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which significantly increases the efflux of anticancer drugs from tumor cells, enhances MDR. In the past few decades, four generations of P-gp inhibitors have appeared. However, they are limited in clinical application due to their severe toxic side effects. As a P-gp inhibitor and carrier for loading chemotherapy agents, TPGS has received increasing attention due to its advantages and unique properties of reversing MDR. TPGS is an amphipathic agent that increases the solubility of most chemotherapy drugs and decreases severe side effects. In addition, TPGS is an excellent carrier with P-gp-inhibiting ability. In this review, we summarize the latest articles on TPGS-based nanodelivery systems to prevent MDR.

Read More

Simultaneous quantification of vitamin E and vitamin E metabolites in equine plasma and serum using LC-MS/MS

Hadi Habib, Carrie J Finno, Ingrid Gennity, Gianna Favro, Erin Hales, Birgit Puschner, Benjamin C Moeller

J Vet Diagn Invest . 2021 May;33(3):506-515. doi: 10.1177/10406387211005433. Epub 2021 Apr 13.


Vitamin E deficiencies can impact normal growth and development in humans and animals, and assessment of circulating levels of vitamin E and its metabolites may be an important endpoint for evaluation. Development of a sensitive method to detect and quantify low concentrations of vitamin E and metabolites in biological specimens allows for a proper diagnosis for patients and animals that are deficient. We developed a method to simultaneously extract, detect, and quantify the vitamin E compounds alpha-tocopherol (α-TP), gamma-tocopherol (γ-TP), alpha-tocotrienol (α-TT), and gamma-tocotrienol (γ-TT), and the corresponding metabolites formed after β-oxidation of α-TP and γ-TP, alpha-carboxymethylbutyl hydroxychroman (α-CMBHC) and alpha- or gamma-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (α- or γ-CEHC), respectively, from equine plasma and serum. Quantification was achieved through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We applied a 96-well high-throughput format using a Phenomenex Phree plate to analyze plasma and serum. Compounds were separated by using a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with a reverse-phase gradient. The limits of detection for the metabolites and vitamin E compounds were 8-330 pg/mL. To validate the method, intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were evaluated along with limits of detection and quantification. The method was then applied to determine concentrations of these analytes in plasma and serum of horses. Alpha-TP levels were 3-6 µg/mL of matrix; the metabolites were found at much lower levels, 0.2-1.0 ng/mL of matrix.

Read More

Pickering emulsion-templated ionotropic gelation of tocotrienol microcapsules: effects of alginate and chitosan concentrations and gelation process parameters

Phui Yee Tan, Tai Boon Tan, Hon Weng Chang, William W Mwangi, Beng Ti Tey, Eng Seng Chan, Oi Ming Lai, Yuanfa Liu, Yong Wang, Chin Ping Tan

J Sci Food Agric . 2021 Apr 11. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11249. Online ahead of print.


Background: Throughout the past decade, Pickering emulsion has been increasingly utilized for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds due to its high stability and biocompatibility. In the present work, palm tocotrienols were initially encapsulated in a calcium carbonate Pickering emulsion, which was then subjected to alginate gelation and subsequent chitosan coating. The effects of wall material (alginate and chitosan) concentrations, gelation pH and time, and chitosan coating time on the encapsulation efficiency of palm tocotrienols were explored.

Results: Our findings revealed that uncoated alginate microcapsules ruptured upon drying and exhibited low encapsulation efficiency (13.81 ± 2.76%). However, the addition of chitosan successfully provided a more complex and rigid external wall structure to enhance the stability of the microcapsules. By prolonging the crosslinking time from 5 to 30 min and increasing the chitosan concentration from 0.1% to 0.5%, the oil encapsulation efficiency was increased by 28%. Under the right gelation pH (pH 4), the extension of gelation time from 1 to 12 h resulted in an increase in alginate-Ca2+ crosslinkings, thus strengthening the microcapsules.

Conclusion: With the optimum formulation and process parameters, a high encapsulation efficiency (81.49 ± 1.75%) with an elevated oil loading efficiency (63.58 ± 2.96%) were achieved. The final product is biocompatible and can potentially be used for the delivery of palm tocotrienols. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

Read More

Differences in the Compositions of Vitamin E Tocochromanol (Tocopherol and Tocotrienol) in Rice Bran Oils Produced in Japan and Other Countries

Yasushi Endo, Kiyotaka Nakagawa

J Oleo Sci . 2021 Apr 2;70(4):503-507. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess20277. Epub 2021 Mar 10.


In this study, we investigated the compositions of vitamin E tocochromanol [tocopherol (Toc) and tocotrienol (T3)] in crude and refined rice bran oil (RBO) produced in Japan and other countries, including Brazil, Thailand, and Vietnam, based on high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. All RBO analyzed contained α-, β- and γ-Toc and α-, γ- and δ-T3. Japanese crude RBO, although not refined RBO, also contained β-T3. Furthermore, total Toc contents in both Japanese crude and refined oils were found to be higher than those in the crude and refined RBO from other countries. Total T3 contents in Japanese crude RBO were similar to those in the crude RBO from Brazil and Vietnam. The α-Toc and α-T3 contents in Japanese crude and refined RBO were considerably higher than those in the crude and refined RBO produced in other countries, whereas in contrast, γ-Toc and γ-T3 contents in Japanese crude and refined RBO were lower. Consequently, the ratios of total α-Toc and α-T3 contents to total γ-Toc and γ-T3 contents in Japanese crude and refined RBO (1.75 and 1.91, respectively) were notably higher than those in the crude and refined RBO produced in other countries. Similarly, the ratios of total Toc to total T3 in Japanese crude and refined RBO were higher than those in the crude and refined RBO produced in other countries. These results accordingly indicate that the ratio of total α-Toc and α-T3 contents to γ-Toc and γ-T3 contents could be used as an effective index to discriminate between the RBO produced in Japan and that produced in other countries.

Read More