The rapid and sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of molecular biomarkers from real samples is still a challenge because the intrinsically trace analytes may have a low molecular affinity for metal surfaces. Herein, we develop a smart signal conversion and amplification strategy based on silver-gold-silica core-satellite structure nanoparticles (Ag@Au@SiO2 NPs) to sensitively detect low adsorptive vitamin E using SERS, which has been considered a biomarker of neuromuscular disorders when its abnormal content is measured in the serum of patients. Through the reducibility of vitamin E, Ag+ ions are rapidly reduced to Ag atoms, resulting in the epitaxial growth of Ag nanocrystals on gold nanoparticles forming satellite particle-particle gap-narrowed Ag@Au@SiO2 NPs. The generated strong plasmonic field dramatically enhances the Raman signal of the Raman reporter molecule 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) and the detected vitamin E molecules at an estimated level of 58.19 nmol L-1. The sensitivity of this operational SERS strategy provides tremendous prospects for the screening of neuromuscular disorders.