Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Method for Simultaneous Measurement of 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, Vitamin A, α-Tocopherol, and γ-Tocopherol

Yi Xiao, Edward Ki Yun Leung

Am J Clin Pathol . 2021 Aug 31;aqab088. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqab088. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: Fat-soluble vitamins are measured to identify deficiencies that may lead to rickets, osteomalacia, night blindness, and reversible motor and sensory neuropathies. We present a rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that simultaneously measures 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3), epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol.

Methods: We mixed 100 µL serum with internal standard and extracted it by using supported liquid extraction plates. Reconstituted specimens were analyzed by LC-MS/MS with a 10-minute gradient.

Results: The method was linear, covering physiological levels with r2 > 0.99, and the total precision was less than 15% at all quality control levels. The lower limit of the measuring intervals for 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were 4 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 4 ng/mL, 1 µg/dL, 0.2 µg/mL, and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively, with coefficient of variation of 20% or less. Recoveries were between 92% and 111% for National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials and 81% and 122% for spike-recovery studies. Comparison studies for vitamin D total, vitamin A, and α-tocopherol demonstrated slopes between 1.04 and 1.11 and r2 between 0.94 and 0.96. Minimal matrix effect was observed for all analytes.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a rapid LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous measurement of 25(OH)D3, epi-25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, vitamin A, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol.

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Vitamin E May Save Dental Enamel from Erosion, Study

SAO PAULO, Brazil: Researchers at the University of São Paulo have found that Vitamin E could protect dental enamel against erosion.

Daniela Rios and colleagues found this association by assessing the in-vitro effect of different components of palm oil on enamel in a short-term erosive challenge. To conduct a study, they use bovine enamel blocks treated with the solutions described in the results below separately and then immersed in citric acid. The following results have been analysed, which lead to the finding.

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Vitamin E may help protect dental enamel against erosion, study finds

The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) was previously formed in situ for 2 h. Subsequently, the bovine enamel blocks were treated i vitro according to following solutions: G1- palm oil; G2- 85% tocotrienol solution; G3- oily vitamn E; G4- oily vitamin A; G5- deionized water (negative control); G6- stannous-containing solution (positive control).

The author concluded that ”Vitamn E presented similar preventive effect to a commercial mouthwash stannous-containing solution against initial erosion, and it can be considered as a promising alternative for the formulations of solutions aiming to prevent erosive tooth wear”.

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Tocotrienols as an Anti-Breast Cancer Agent

Madison Trujillo, Anupreet Kharbanda, Christa Corley, Pilar Simmons, Antiño R Allen

Antioxidants (Basel) . 2021 Aug 29;10(9):1383. doi: 10.3390/antiox10091383.

Abstract

In the past few years, breast cancer has become the most prevalent type of cancer. The majority of patients receive combinatorial chemotherapy treatments, which may result in increased risk of developing drug resistance, a reduced quality of life, and substantial side effects. Treatment modalities that could lessen the physical toll of standard treatments or act in synergy with chemotherapeutic treatments would benefit women worldwide. Research into tocotrienols has thus far demonstrated their potential to be such an agent, with tocotrienols surpassing the pharmacological potential of tocopherols. Further research using in vitro and preclinical breast cancer models to support clinical trials is needed. This review uses bibliometric analysis to highlight this gap in research and summarizes the current and future landscape of tocotrienols as an anti-breast cancer agent.

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The effects of vitamin E on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in treatment of drug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections: A randomized clinical trial

Maryam Samsami, Minoosh Shabani, Mohammadreza Hajiesmaeili, Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Seyed Hossein Ardehali, Alireza Fatemi, Saghar Barati, Omid Moradi, Zahra Sahraei

J Infect Chemother . 2021 Aug;27(8):1181-1185. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2021.03.013. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Abstract

Introduction: Nephrotoxicity remains a major long-standing concern for colistin, and it is critical to find agents that can prevent it. The present study aims to investigate the effect of vitamin E on the prevention of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity based on its antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

Methods: A randomized clinical trial was designed for 52 patients taking colistin. These patients were categorized into two groups of equal size, receiving colistin or colistin plus vitamin E (α-Tocopherol). Vitamin E with doses of 400 units was administrated daily either orally or by a nasogastric tube if needed. The incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and its duration was recorded based on RIFLE criteria.

Results: The Incidence of AKI based on RIFLE criteria was 42.3% and 46.2% in intervention and control groups, respectively. The analysis showed no significant difference in the prevalence of AKI for the two groups (P = 0.78). There was no significant difference in the duration of AKI neither (P = 0.83).

Conclusion: Although vitamin E is a powerful biological antioxidant, the effects of Vitamin E prophylaxis on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity was not taken into consideration in this study.

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The plasma antioxidant vitamin status of the INTAPP cohort examined: The unsuspected importance of β-carotene and γ-tocopherol in preeclampsia

Jean-François Bilodeau, Amélie Gagné, Karine Greffard, François Audibert, William D Fraser, Pierre Julien

Pregnancy Hypertens . 2021 Aug;25:213-218. doi: 10.1016/j.preghy.2021.06.009. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Abstract

Objective: Examine the levels of plasma antioxidant vitamins before and during a treatment with placebo or vitamin E + C supplement to prevent preeclampsia (PE).

Study design: Per-protocol analysis of a subset group of pregnant women (n = 295) from the International Trial of Antioxidants for the Prevention of PE (INTAPP) randomized case-control study. Normotensive receiving placebo or vitamins (n = 115 and 87 respectively) were compared to gestational hypertension (GH) without proteinuria (n = 30 and 27) and PE (n = 21 and 15). Vitamin quantification was performed at 12-18, 24-26 and 32-34 weeks of gestation.

Main outcome measures: Coenzyme (Co) Q10, β-carotene and vitamins E (α and γ forms) plasma levels.

Results: Vitamin E + C supplementation was found to increase the α-tocopherol levels by 40% but was associated with a 57% decrease in the γ-tocopherol isoform for all study groups (p < 0.001). The β -carotene was lower in the PE than in the normotensive and GH groups (p < 0.001) while the level of CoQ10 remained unaffected.

Conclusions: A more personalized approach that target the suboptimal levels of specific antioxidants without disturbing the α/γ-tocopherol ratio could be a more successful approach to counteract oxidative stress in PE.

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Vitamin E and selenium supplementation synergistically alleviate the injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in bovine granulosa cells

Meimei Wang, Yan Li, Adrian Molenaar, Qiufeng Li, Yufeng Cao, Yizhao Shen, Panliang Chen, Jinling Yan, Yanxia Gao, Jianguo Li

Theriogenology . 2021 Aug;170:91-106. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.04.015. Epub 2021 May 5.

Abstract

Dairy cows are susceptible to reproductive disorders, which are thought to be associated with oxidative stress. In the study, we investigated the effects of vitamin E (VE) and selenium (Se) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis in bovine ovarian granulosa cells under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) – induced oxidative stress and elaborated the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that VE or Se could stimulate the granulosa cell proliferation, possibly due to up-regulating the expression of CCND1 and decreasing the P21 levels under oxidative stress. VE or Se treatment also increased the secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), which could be owing to improving the expression of genes associated with steroidogenesis (StAR, HSD3β1, and CYP19A1) expression. VE or Se treatment down-regulated the apoptosis-related genes (BAX, CASP3) expression and decreased cell apoptosis. Furthermore, VE or Se treatment inhibited reactive oxidative species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, increased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Additionally, VE or Se treatment also alleviated the endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and up-regulated the expression of its downstream genes, including NQO1, HO-1, GCLM, GCLC. More importantly, compared with either VE or Se treatment alone, their combined treatment showed a better protective effect against oxidative damage. Overall, our results indicated that VE and Se synergistically stimulated the granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis, decreased cell apoptosis, mitigated the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating the NRF2 signal pathway.

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In vitro antiaging evaluation of sunscreen formulated from nanostructured lipid carrier and tocotrienol-rich fraction

Chee Chin Chu, Zafarizal Aldrin Bin Azizul Hasan, Chin Ping Tan, Kar Lin Nyam

J Pharm Sci . 2021 Aug 20;S0022-3549(21)00423-8. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.08.020.

Abstract

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to photoaging. There is a tremendous rise in products having a dual activity of photoprotection and antiaging. In vitro analysis in dermal fibroblasts and their biological mechanisms involved are critical to determine antiaging potential. The study aimed to investigate the antiaging potential of sunscreen formulated from nanostructured lipid carrier and tocotrienol-rich fraction (NLC-TRF sunscreen). The antioxidant activity of the NLC-TRF sunscreen was evaluated by radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide inhibition properties. Also, collagenase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition activities, and type I collagen and elastin protein expression were studied. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I collagen (COL1A1), elastin (ELN), MMP-1, MMP-2, and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The results suggested that NLC-TRF sunscreen is effective in radical, anti-hydrogen peroxide, and collagenase, elastase and MMP-1 inhibition activities. Besides, a significant increase for type I collagen (3.47-fold) and elastin (2.16-fold) protein and fibroblast regeneration genes (FGF (2.12-fold), VEGF (1.91-fold), TGF-β1 (2.84-fold), TIMP-1 (1.42-fold), ELN (2.13-fold)) were observed after sample treatment. These findings support the therapeutic potential of NLC-TRF sunscreen in antiaging.

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Systematic review and meta-analyses of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation and blood lipid parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

Abolfathi Mohammad, Ebrahim Falahi, Mohd Yusof Barakatun-Nisak, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, S Mohd Redzwan, Loqman Mohamad Yusof, Mohsen Gheitasvand, Farahnaz Rezaie

Diabetes Metab Syndr . Jul-Aug 2021;15(4):102158. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.031. Epub 2021 May 31.

Abstract

Background and aims: The studies have shown that α-tocopherol supplementation could improve lipid profile in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Nonetheless, the result remains inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of α-tocopherol supplement on lipid parameters in DM patients.

Methods: We conducted an extensive search via Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to acquire the reported RCTs up to October 2020.

Results: The results showed no effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid profile in DM patients except when used ≥12 weeks.

Conclusions: α-tocopherol supplementation in DM patients had no significant effect on lipid profiles.

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Fruit tree leaves as valuable new source of tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds

Aneta Wojdyło, Igor Piotr Turkiewicz, Karolina Tkacz, Francisca Hernandez

J Sci Food Agric . 2021 Aug 16. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11481. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Nowadays it is highly important to find new, cheap and widely available sources of tocopherol and tocotrienol compounds, and leaves are promising unconventional sources. The main goal of this study was to extend the currently limited knowledge concerning tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers composition determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection analysis for various fruit tree leaves such as apple, pear, quince, apricot, peach, plum, sour cherry and sweet cherry. The leaves were collected 2 weeks after tree blooming and after fruit collection. Tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers were identified and quantified for the first time in all fruit tree leaves.

Results: The total tocopherol content ranged from 203.34 to 260.86 μg g-1 dry weight for spring leaves and from 23.83 to 235.62 μg g-1 dry weight for autumn leaves and consisted mainly of α-tocopherol. The rest of the isomers of tocopherol and tocotrienols were also found, but in trace amounts. A significantly lower content of tocopherols and tocotrienols was detected in leaves after autumn collection of fruits compared to leaves collected after blooming. Among the analyzed leaves, time collected and species were significantly more important than their cultivars. Regarding quantification analysis, apricot > peach > > plums > apples leaves were identified as the best sources of tocopherols, and sweet and sour cherry leaves exhibited a lower content.

Conclusion: Fruit tree leaves are a novel significant source and good material for isolation of α-tocopherol for application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals or in the food industry – for example, production of beverages or other functional foods.

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