“Since our country is rich with palm oil, why not leverage on the resources? But it is also because of Vitamin E isomer, tocopherol, derived mainly from soya in the West, did not prove consistent results as a prevention supplement for the post-CABG patients, hence my study using another more potent Vitamin E isomer, tocotrienol, which is derived from palm oil,” said Dr Ahmad Farouk Musa.
The effects of vitamin E (Vit E) on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and brain tissues oxidative damage as well as on learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats were examined. The rats were grouped as: (1) Control; (2) Propylthiouracil (PTU); (3) PTU-Vit E and (4) Vit E. PTU was added to their drinking water (0.05%) during 6 weeks. Vit E (20 mg/kg) was daily injected (IP). Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) were carried out. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the brain tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU increased the escape latency and traveled path in MWM (P < 0.001). It also shortened the latency to enter the dark compartment of PA as well as the time spent in the target quadrant in probe trial of MWM (P < 0.01-P < 0.001). All the effects of PTU were reversed by Vit E (P < 0.01-P < 0.001). PTU administration attenuated thiol and BDNF content as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the brain tissues while increased molondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, Vit E improved BDNF, thiol, SOD and CAT while diminished MDA. The results of the present study showed that Vit E improved BDNF and prevented from brain tissues oxidative damage as well as learning and memory impairments in juvenile hypothyroid rats.
Exposure to ambient ozone (O3) increases the susceptivity to allergens and triggers exacerbations in patients with asthma. However, the detailed mechanisms of action for O3 to trigger asthma exacerbations are still unclear.
An ovalbumin (OVA)-established asthmatic mouse model was selected to expose to filtered air (OVA-model) or 1.0 ppm O3(OVA-O3 model) during the process of OVA challenge. Next, the possible involvements of p38 MAPK and oxidative stress in the ozone actions on the asthma exacerbations were investigated on the mice of OVA-O3 model by treating them with SB239063 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor), and/or the α-tocopherol (antioxidant). Biological measurements were conducted including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway resistance (Raw), lung compliance (CL), inflammation in the airway lumen and lung parenchyma, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and heat shock protein (HSP) 27 in the tracheal tissues, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in lung tissues.
In OVA-allergic mice, O3 exposure deteriorated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway resistance (Raw), lung compliance (CL) and pulmonary inflammation, accompanied by the increased oxidative stress in lung tissues and promoted p38 MAPK and HSP27 phosphorylation in tracheal tissues. Administration of SB239063 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) on OVA-O3 model exclusively mitigated the Raw, the CL, and the BAL IL-13 content, while α-tocopherol (antioxidant) differentially reduced the BAL number of eosinophils and macrophages, the content of BAL hyaluronan, the peribronchial inflammation, as well as the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-5 in the lung tissues of OVA-O3 model. Administration of these two chemical inhibitors similarly inhibited the AHR, the BAL IFN-γ and IL-6 production, the perivascular lung inflammation and the lung IL-17 mRNA expression of OVA-O3 model. Interestingly, the combined treatment of both compounds together synergistically inhibited neutrophil counts in the BALF and CXCL-1 gene expression in the lung.
O3 exposure during the OVA challenge process promoted exacerbation in asthma. Both p38 MAPK and oxidative stress were found to play a critical role in this process and simultaneous inhibition of these two pathways significantly reduced the O3-elicited detrimental effects on the asthma exacerbation.
High fat diets are implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity and renal disease. Previous studies have revealed that high fat diets promote vascular calcification in uremic rats. Moreover, vitamin E has been shown to prevent uremic calcifications in genetically obese Zucker rats fed standard diet. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of vitamin E supplementation on the development of extraskeletal calcifications in non-obese (wild type) uremic rats fed high fat diets.
Wistar rats (n = 32) were preconditioned by feeding either a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet for 45 days and subsequently were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Just before performing the first Nx step, a blood sample (Pre-Nx) was obtained. After Nx rats were switched to a diet with 0.9% phosphorus and supplemented with calcitriol. Also, after Nx, half of the rats from each group (NF and HF) were treated with vitamin E (VitE) in the diet (30,000 mg/kg) and the other half were maintained on basic VitE requirements (27 mg/kg). Thus, rats were allotted to four experimental groups: Nx-NF (n = 8), Nx-NF-VitE (n = 8), Nx-HF (n = 8) and Nx-HF-VitE (n = 8). At the time of sacrifice (day 66), blood and tissue samples were obtained.
Feeding a HF diet for 45 days did not increase body weight but elicited hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, an increase in plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 and a reduction in plasma calcitriol concentrations. After Nx, rats fed HF diet showed substantial extraskeletal calcification with aortic calcium content that was higher than in rats fed NF diet. Supplementation with VitE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced aortic (from 38.4 ± 8.8 to 16.5 ± 1.4 mg/g), gastric (from 5.6 ± 2.7 to 1.2 ± 0.4 mg/g) and pulmonary (from 1.8 ± 0.3 to 0.3 ± 0.2 mg/g) calcium content in rats on HF diets.
Uremic rats fed HF diets developed more severe extraosseous calcifications than their normocaloric-fed counterparts and dietary VitE supplementation protected against uremic calcifications in rats fed HF diets. Thus, eating energy-rich foods should be discouraged in patients with renal disease and their deleterious effect may be ameliorated with adequate antioxidant supply.
Although fluoride has been widely used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and drinking water to prevent dental caries, the excessive intake of fluoride can cause fluorosis which is associated with dental, skeletal, and soft tissue fluorosis. Recent evidences have drawn the attention to its adverse effects on male reproductive system that include spermatogenesis defect, sperm count loss, and sperm maturation impairment. Fluoride induces oxidative stress through the activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade which can lead to cell apoptosis. Vitamin E (VE) and lycopene are two common anti-oxidants, being protective to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced toxic effects. However, whether and how these two anti-oxidants prevent fluoride-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis are largely unknown. In the present study, a male rat model for coal burning fluorosis was established and the histological lesions and spermatogenic cell apoptosis in rat testes were observed. The decreased expression of clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein reported to regulate spermatogenic cell apoptosis, is detected in fluoride-treated rat testes. Interestingly, the co-administration with VE or lycopene reduced fluorosis-mediated testicular toxicity and rescued clusterin expression. Further, fluoride caused the enhanced Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, which was reduced by VE or lycopene. Thus, VE and lycopene prevent coal burning fluorosis-induced spermatogenic cell apoptosis through the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated JNK and ERK signaling pathway, which could be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of fluorosis.
You’ve probably heard your doctor discuss the health benefits of taking vitamin E, which include boosting your immune system, preventing stroke-induced brain damage and protecting against certain cancers. But vitamin E oil can also work wonders when it comes to your hair, skin and nails. (Just take a look at this girl’s smooth alabaster complexion). However, it isn’t as simple as buying a face cream labeled with the powerful ingredient.
Asthma, a chronic inflammation of the lung airways, has been around since the ancient Egyptian times. This disease plagues approximately 26 millions Americans today, and the number increases every year. Historical records show hundreds of remedies and recipes to help with the symptoms asthma brings, but none have been successful enough to cure the illness. Fortunately, researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine may be a step closer to discovering the cure: Patients who take vitamin E supplements (gamma tocopherol) were found to have less inflammation in their lung airways.
Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I) control group; (II) alcohol (3g/kg) + normal saline; (III) alcohol (3g/kg) + olive oil; (IV) alcohol (3g/kg) + alpha-tocopherol (60mg/kg) and (V) alcohol (3g/kg) + palm vitamin E (60mg/kg). The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar) and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement.
Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus) and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium) compared to control group (P<0.05). Palm vitamin E was able to improve bone biomechanical parameters by increasing the maximum force, ultimate stress and Young’s modulus (P<0.05) while alpha-tocopherol was not able to. Both alpha-tocopherol and palm vitamin E were able to significantly increase tibia calcium and magnesium content while only alpha-tocopherol caused significant increase in lumbar calcium content (P<0.05).
Both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol improved bone mineral content which was reduced by alcohol. However, only palm vitamin E was able to improve bone strength in alcohol treated rats.
In the recent history of dietary supplements, vitamin E has been around forever. Discovered in 1922, it was once known only as tocopherol because the tocotrienol form had not yet been identified. The bulk of research was on tocopherols until recently, which may explain why alpha-tocopherol is the form used in most multivitamins and supplemented in foods today. Yet, a growing body of evidence suggests tocotrienols—which contain some exceptional benefits not shared by their “older” tocopherol siblings–deserve a closer look.
To investigate the effects of sulforaphane (SFN) and vitamin E (VE) on spatial learning and memory ability and oxidative damage of hippocampus in lead-exposed mice at lactation.
A total of 18 adult Kunming mice, all 12 female mice were divided into two groups by body weight randomly, 10 mice drank water containing 0.2% lead acetate at lactation, the other 2 mice drank lead free deionized water named as the normal group. Then, they were mated at a 1:2 ratio of male to female. After weaning, the pups were divided into 5 groups by weight randomly (10 each group): normal saline (NS) group, corn oil (CO) group, SFN group, VE group and SFN+VE group. They were subject to gavage daily for four weeks. Gavage doses of SFN and VE were 25mg/kg and 30 IU/kg respectively. Meanwhile, 10 pups of the normal group were selected randomly as the control (C) group. The C group was normally raised for 4 weeks. The spatial learning and memory ability of them were evaluated by the Morris water maze test, and the lead level in the blood was determined by polarography. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in hippocampus were measured by the kits.
Compared with the NS and CO groups, the lead level in the blood of SFN and SFN+VE group had a significant decrease. In water maze test, the mice treated with SFN or/and VE performed better than mice of the NS and CO groups. In addition, a remarkable decrease in MDA level was found in mice treated with SFN or/and VE than those in NS and CO groups. What’s more, there was no statistical distinction of SOD activity in SFN group than that of NS group. SOD activity significantly increased was observed in VE and SFN+VE groups than that of CO group.
Sulforaphane and vitamin E could ameliorate cognitive decline and oxidative damage in pups with lead exposure at lactation from maternal milk.