Stereological and histopathological evaluation of doxorubicin-induced toxicity in female rats’ ovary and uterus and palliative effects of quercetin and vitamin E

M Samare-Najaf, F Zal, S Safari, F Koohpeyma, N Jamali

Hum Exp Toxicol . 2020 Dec;39(12):1710-1724. doi: 10.1177/0960327120937329. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with demonstrated reproductive toxicity. This study sought to determine the DOX-induced toxicity in the ovary and uterus and the preventive effects of quercetin (QCT) and vitamin E (Vit.E). Female rats were divided into six groups as follows: control, QCT (20 mg/kg), Vit.E (200 mg/kg), DOX (accumulative 15 mg/kg), DOX/QCT, and DOX/Vit.E. After 3 weeks, the toxicity of DOX in ovarian and uterine tissues and the potential palliative effects of QCT and Vit.E were evaluated by histopathological-stereological methods. The findings indicate a dramatic decline in the number of ovarian follicles (p < 0.001), ovarian and its associated structures volume, the volume of the uterus, its layers, and related structures (p < 0.05). Coadministration of QCT and Vit.E with DOX-treated rats demonstrated an alleviative effect on most of the studied parameters. Nevertheless, few adverse effects were recognized concerning these antioxidants administration (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the protective role of these dietary supplements in the prevention of DOX-induced toxicity in uterine and ovarian tissues.

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Epidermal Growth Factor and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Cream Formulation Accelerates Burn Healing Process Based on Its Gene Expression Pattern in Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Wound Model

Hui-Fang Guo, Razana Mohd Ali, Roslida Abd Hamid, Sui Kiat Chang, Mohammed Habibur Rahman, Zaida Zainal, Huzwah Khaza'ai

Int J Low Extrem Wounds . 2020 Nov 26;1534734620971066. doi: 10.1177/1534734620971066. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Our previous study has demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) with tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) cream formulation accelerating postburn wound healing with deep partial-thickness burn in rats. Current study was conducted to determine the gene expression levels related to burn wound healing process. A total of 180 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: untreated control, treated with Silverdin cream, base cream, base cream with 0.00075% EGF, base cream with 3% TRF or base cream with 0.00075% EGF, and 3% TRF, respectively. Burn wounds were created and the above-mentioned creams were applied once daily. Six animals from each group were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 11, 14, and 21 postburn. RNA was extracted from wound tissues and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the 9 wound healing-related genes against time postburn. Results demonstrated that topically applied EGF + TRF formulation downregulated the expression levels of IL-6 (interluekin-6), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) throughout the whole healing process. TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β) and VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor-A) were reduced on day 14 postburn. On the contrary, increased expression of Collagen-1 in the early stage of wound healing was observed with no effects on epidemal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The results showed beneficial application of EGF + TRF cream in the treatment of burn wound since it accelerated wound healing by relieving oxidative stress, decreasing inflammation, and promoting proper tissue modelling in the burn wound.

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Analysis of expression of vitamin E-binding proteins in H2O2 induced SK-N-SH neuronal cells supplemented with α-tocopherol and tocotrienol-rich fraction

Aishatu Ali Chiroma, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Roslida Abd Hamid, Sui Kiat Chang, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Zaida Zainal

PLoS One . 2020 Nov 24;15(11):e0241112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241112. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Natural α-tocopherol (α-TCP), but not tocotrienol, is preferentially retained in the human body. α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is responsible for binding α-TCP for cellular uptake and has high affinity and specificity for α-TCP but not α-tocotrienol. The purpose of this study was to examine the modification of α-TTP together with other related vitamin E-binding genes (i.e., TTPA, SEC14L2, and PI-TPNA) in regulating vitamin E uptake in neuronal cells at rest and under oxidative stress. Oxidative stress was induced with H2O2 for an hour which was followed by supplementation with different ratios of α-TCP and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) for four hours. The cellular levels of vitamin E were quantified to determine bioavailability at cellular levels. The expression levels of TTPA, SEC14L2, and PI-TPNA genes in 0% α-TCP were found to be positively correlated with the levels of vitamin E in resting neuronal cells. In addition, the regulation of all the above-mentioned genes affect the distribution of vitamin E in the neuronal cells. It was observed that, increased levels of α-TCP secretion occur under oxidative stress. Thus, our results showed that in conclusion vitamin E-binding proteins may be modified in the absence of α-TCP to produce tocotrienols (TCT), as a source of vitamin E. The current study suggests that the expression levels of vitamin E transport proteins may influence the cellular concentrations of vitamin E levels in the neuronal cells.

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Gamma Tocotrienol Protects Mice From Targeted Thoracic Radiation Injury

Vidya P Kumar, Sasha Stone, Shukla Biswas, Neel Sharma, Sanchita P Ghosh

Front Pharmacol . 2020 Nov 12;11:587970. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.587970. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Radiation injury will result in multiorgan dysfuntion leading to multiorgan failure. In addition to many factors such as radiation dose, dose rate, the severity of the injury will also depend on organ systems which are exposed. Here, we report the protective property of gamma tocotrienol (GT3) in total as well as partial body irradiation (PBI) model in C3H/HeN male mice. We have carried out PBI by targeting thoracic region (lung-PBI) using Small Animal Radiation Research Platform, an X-ray irradiator with capabilities of an image guided irradiation with a variable collimator with minimized exposure to non-targeted tissues and organs. Precise and accurate irradiation of lungs was carried out at either 14 or 16 Gy at an approximate dose rate of 2.6 Gy/min. Though a low throughput model, it is amenable to change the field size on the spot. No damage to other non-targeted organs was observed in histopathological evaluation. There was no significant change in peripheral blood counts of irradiated mice in comparison to naïve mice. Femoral bone marrow cells had no damage in irradiated mice. As expected, damage to the targeted tissue was observed in the histopathological evaluation and non-targeted tissue was found normal. Regeneration and increase of cellularity and megakaryocytes on GT3 treatment was compared to significant loss of cellularity in saline group. Peak alveolitis was observed on day 14 post-PBI and protection from alveolitis by GT3 was noted. In irradiated lung tissue, thirty proteins were found to be differentially expressed but modulated by GT3 to reverse the effects of irradiation. We propose that possible mode of action of GT3 could be Angiopoietin 2-Tie2 pathway leading to AKT/ERK pathways resulting in disruption in cell survival/angiogenesis.

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Cognitive function improvement with astaxanthin and tocotrienol intake: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Takahiro Sekikawa, Yuki Kizawa, Yanmei Li, Tsuyoshi Takara

J Clin Biochem Nutr . 2020 Nov;67(3):307-316. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.19-116. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Abstract

We examined the effects of the mixed ingestion of astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis and tocotrienols on the cognitive function of healthy Japanese adults who feel a memory decline. Forty-four subjects were randomly but equally assigned to the astaxanthin-tocotrienols or placebo group. An astaxanthin-tocotrienols or placebo capsule was taken once daily before or after breakfast for a 12-week intervention period. The primary outcome was composite memory from the Cognitrax cognitive test, and the secondary outcomes were other cognitive functions and subjective symptoms for memory. Each group included 18 subjects in the efficacy analysis (astaxanthin-tocotrienols group, 55.4 ± 7.9 years; placebo group, 54.6 ± 6.9 years). The astaxanthin-tocotrienols group showed a significant improvement in composite memory and verbal memory in Cognitrax at Δ12 weeks compared with the placebo group. Additionally, the astaxanthin-tocotrienols group showed a significant improvement in the subjective symptom of “During the last week, have you had trouble remembering people’s names or the names of things?” compared with the placebo group after 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in this study. The results demonstrated that taking an astaxanthin-tocotrienols combination improves the composite memory and verbal memory of Japanese adults who feel a memory decline (UMIN 000031758).

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Vitamin E as promising adjunct treatment option in the combat of infectious diseases caused by bacterial including multi-drug resistant pathogens – Results from a comprehensive literature survey

Minnja S Hartmann, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) . 2020 Nov 5. doi: 10.1556/1886.2020.00020. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The use of antibiotics has provoked an emergence of various multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Infectious diseases that cannot be treated sufficiently with conventional antibiotic intervention strategies anymore constitue serious threats to human health. Therefore, current research focus has shifted to alternative, antibiotic-independent therapeutic approaches. In this context, vitamin E constitutes a promising candidate molecule due to its multi-faceted modes of action. Therefore, we used the PubMed database to perform a comprehensive literature survey reviewing studies addressing the antimicrobial properties of vitamin E against bacterial pathogens including MDR bacteria. The included studies published between 2010 and 2020 revealed that given its potent synergistic antimicrobial effects in combination with distinct antibiotic compounds, vitamin E constitutes a promising adjunct antibiotic treatment option directed against infectious diseases caused by MDR bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In conclusion, the therapeutic value of vitamin E for the treatment of bacterial infections should therefore be investigated in future clinical studies.

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Ophthalmologic evaluation in vitamin-E deficiency: A case report

Daniele Sindaco, Francesca Cappelli, Aldo Vagge, Carlo E Traverso, Michele Iester

Eur J Ophthalmol . 2020 Nov 3;1120672120970112. doi: 10.1177/1120672120970112. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

A 41-year-old woman has come to our attention complaining of decreased visual acuity and monocular diplopia associated with upper and lower limb hypoesthesia. Malabsorption syndrome with vitamin A and E deficiency developed after a bariatric biliopancreatic diversion. The clinical ophthalmological signs and symptoms improved after oral vitamin supplementation therapy. The past medical history is essential in the case of a patient complaining of visual symptoms compatible with vitamin deficiency in order to detect the cause and to start a prompt therapy to avoid irreversible neurological and visual sequelae. The clinical features of our case closely resemble other cases described in the literature of patients affected by vitamin A and E deficiency secondary to malabsorption syndrome.

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Assessing the Impact of Oil Types and Grades on Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Contents in Vegetable Oils with Chemometric Methods

Yunqi Wen, Lili Xu, Changhu Xue, Xiaoming Jiang, Zihao Wei

Molecules . 2020 Nov 1;25(21):E5076. doi: 10.3390/molecules25215076.

Abstract

The consumption of vegetable oil is an important way for the body to obtain tocols. However, the impact of oil types and grades on the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in vegetable oils is unclear. In this study, nine types of traditional edible oils and ten types of self-produced new types of vegetable oil were used to analyze eight kinds of tocols. The results showed that the oil types exerted a great impact on the tocol content of traditional edible oils. Soybean oils, corn oils, and rapeseed oils all could be well distinguished from sunflower oils. Both sunflower oils and cotton seed oils showed major differences from camellia oils as well as sesame oils. Among them, rice bran oils contained the most abundant types of tocols. New types of oil, especially sacha inchi oil, have provided a new approach to obtaining oils with a high tocol content. Oil refinement leads to the loss of tocols in vegetable oil, and the degree of oil refinement determines the oil grade. However, the oil grade could not imply the final tocol content in oil from market. This study could be beneficial for the oil industry and dietary nutrition.

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Mechanisms Mediating Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Delta-Tocotrienol and Tart Cherry Anthocyanins in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Lexie Harlan, London T Mena, Latha Ramalingam, Shasika Jayarathne, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa

Nutrients . 2020 Oct 30;12(11):3356. doi: 10.3390/nu12113356.

Abstract

Chronic low-grade inflammation is a primary characteristic of obesity and can lead to other metabolic complications including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several anti-inflammatory dietary bioactives decrease inflammation that accompanies metabolic diseases. We are specifically interested in delta-tocotrienol, (DT3) an isomer of vitamin E, and tart cherry anthocyanins (TCA), both of which possess individual anti-inflammatory properties. We have previously demonstrated that DT3 and TCA, individually, reduced systemic and adipose tissue inflammation in rodent models of obesity. However, whether these compounds have combinatorial effects has not been determined yet. Hence, we hypothesize that a combined treatment of DT3 and TCA will have great effects in reducing inflammation in adipocytes, and that these effects are mediated via the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), a major inflammatory transcription factor. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and treated them with 1-5 µM doses of DT3 along with tart cherry containing 18-36 µg anthocyanin/mL, to assess effects on inflammation. Neither DT3 nor TCA, nor their combinations had toxic effects on adipocytes. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and p-65 (subunit of NFkB) were reduced at the protein level in media collected from adipocytes with both individual and combined treatments. Additionally, other downstream targets of NFkB including macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (Mip2), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) were also significantly downregulated (p ≤ 0.05) when treated with individual and combined doses of DT3 and TCA with no additional combinatorial effects. In summary, DT3 and TCA individually, are beneficial in reducing inflammation with no additional combinatorial effects.

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Development and validation of HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of alpha-tocopherol (free or encapsulated) and cholesterol in semen cryopreservation media

Lamia Taouzinet, Sofiane Fatmi, Yasmina Salhi-Amrani, Malika Lahiani-Skiba, Mohamed Skiba, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada

Biomed Chromatogr . 2020 Oct 30;e5018. doi: 10.1002/bmc.5018. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

High-performance chromatography method was developed and validated for essaying α-tocopherol and cholesterol in cryopreservation media. Chromatographic separation was performed on isocratic system, using a C-18 column. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of methanol: acetonitrile: water 68:28:4 (v/v/v), using a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and 20 μl injection volume, at a wavelength of 208 nm. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, accurate, precise and linear with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 over a wide concentration range of both analytes. Vitamin E and cholesterol presented limits of detection of 0.002 mg/ml, 0.026 mg/ml and limits of quantitation of 0.006 mg/ml, 0.086 mg/ml, respectively. This method shows simple, rapid, high precision and accuracy and offers the advantage of simultaneous assay of vitamin E and cholesterol (alone, in cyclodextrins complexes or in liposome loaded) on semen cryopreservation media.

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