Advancing skin delivery of α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol for dermatitis treatment via nanotechnology and microwave technology

Mohd Saufi Harun, Tin Wui Wong, Chee Wai Fong

Int J Pharm . 2021 Jan 25;593:120099. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.120099. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Abstract

This study investigated combination nanocarrier and microwave system for α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol delivery against dermatitis, without skin thinning effect of steroids. The vitamin E was formulated into water-rich/water-poor nanoemulsions, and had their droplet size, zeta potential, morphology, therapeutic content, encapsulation efficiency and release, in vitro skin therapeutics/nanoemulsion penetration, retention and permeation profiles, and in vivo pharmacodynamics characteristics examined, with skin pre-treated by precision microwave when applicable. The nanoemulsions had droplet sizes <150 nm and negative zeta potential values. The skin pre-treatment by microwave (1 mW/3985 MHz) promoted therapeutics accumulation in epidermis through enhancing nanoemulsion penetration into skin. The combination nano- and microwave technologies fluidized skin lipid and protein domains with epidermal microstructures being fluidized to a greater extent than dermis, allowing a relatively high epidermal-to-dermal nanoemulsion distribution. Microwave of lower or higher than 3985 MHz brought about lower skin therapeutics/nanoemulsion accumulation due to insufficient lipid/protein domain fluidization or microwave-skin interaction limiting at skin surfaces only. Using water-rich nanoemulsion with higher therapeutic release and skin pre-treatment with 3985 MHz microwave, dermatitis was alleviated in vivo without skin thinning of standard steroid. The use of combination microwave and nanotechnology promotes vitamin delivery and translates to positive dermatitis treatment outcome that warrants future investigation.

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Production of tocotrienols in seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) enhances oxidative stability and offers nutraceutical potential

Shanmukh S Salimath, Trevor B Romsdahl, Anji Reddy Konda, Wei Zhang, Edgar B Cahoon, Michael K Dowd, Thomas C Wedegaertner, Kater D Hake, Kent D Chapman

Plant Biotechnol J . 2021 Jan 25. doi: 10.1111/pbi.13557. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an economically important multi-purpose crop cultivated globally for fibre, seed oil and protein. Cottonseed oil also is naturally rich in vitamin E components (collectively known as tocochromanols), with α- and γ-tocopherols comprising nearly all of the vitamin E components. By contrast, cottonseeds have little or no tocotrienols, tocochromanols with a wide range of health benefits. Here, we generated transgenic cotton lines expressing the barley (Hordeum vulgare) homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase coding sequence under the control of the Brassica napus seed-specific promoter, napin. Transgenic cottonseeds had ~twofold to threefold increases in the accumulation of total vitamin E (tocopherols + tocotrienols), with more than 60% γ-tocotrienol. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging showed that γ-tocotrienol was localized throughout the transgenic embryos. In contrast, the native tocopherols were distributed unequally in both transgenic and non-transgenic embryos. α- Tocopherol was restricted mostly to cotyledon tissues and γ-tocopherol was more enriched in the embryonic axis tissues. Production of tocotrienols in cotton embryos had no negative impact on plant performance or yield of other important seed constituents including fibre, oil and protein. Advanced generations of two transgenic events were field grown, and extracts of transgenic seeds showed increased antioxidant activity relative to extracts from non-transgenic seeds. Furthermore, refined cottonseed oil from the two transgenic events showed 30% improvement in oxidative stability relative to the non-transgenic cottonseed oil. Taken together, these materials may provide new opportunities for cottonseed co-products with enhanced vitamin E profile for improved shelf life and nutrition.

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Role of Palm Oil Vitamin E in Preventing Pre-eclampsia: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Following ISSHP Reclassification

Nurul Afzan Aminuddin, Rosnah Sutan, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy

Front Med (Lausanne) . 2021 Jan 21;7:596405. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.596405. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: Preeclampsia is a significant cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a key role in its pathophysiology, hence antioxidants such as tocotrienol may be preventive against preeclampsia. In 2018, the ISSHP revised the definition of preeclampsia. In accordance with the new definition, we report a secondary data analysis from a clinical trial comparing palm oil vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) against placebo, in preventing preeclampsia. Method: A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in 2002-2005 to assess the benefits of TRF in preeclampsia prevention. A total of 299 primigravidae were recruited. The intervention group was supplemented with TRF 100 mg daily in super-olein capsules, whereas the placebo group was prescribed super-olein capsules without TRF, beginning from 12 to 16 gestational weeks until delivery. The primary outcome measure was incidence of preeclampsia. Results: The total incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) was 5%, whereas the incidence of preeclampsia was 2.3%. The odds of developing PIH (adjusted OR 0.254; 95% CI: 0.07-0.93; p-value 0.038) and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 0.030; 95% CI: 0.001-0.65; p-value 0.025) were significantly lower in the TRF arm compared to the placebo arm. Conclusion: Antenatal supplementation with palm oil vitamin E in the form of TRF is associated with significant reductions in the incidence of preeclampsia and PIH in a single urban tertiary hospital. Palm oil vitamin E deserves further scrutiny as a potential public health preventive measure against preeclampsia and PIH.

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A Phase IIb Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E on Diabetic Kidney Disease

Yan Yi Koay, Gerald Chen Jie Tan, Sonia Chew Wen Phang, J-Ian Ho, Pei Fen Chuar, Loon Shin Ho, Badariah Ahmad, Khalid Abdul Kadir

Nutrients . 2021 Jan 18;13(1):258. doi: 10.3390/nu13010258.

Abstract

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a debilitating complication of diabetes, which develops in 40% of the diabetic population and is responsible for up to 50% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Tocotrienols have shown to be a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic agent in animal and clinical studies. This study evaluated the effects of 400 mg tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation daily on 59 DKD patients over a 12-month period. Patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) or positive urine microalbuminuria (urine to albumin creatinine ratio; UACR > 20-200 mg/mmol) were recruited into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized into either intervention group (n = 31) which received tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (Tocovid SupraBioTM; Hovid Berhad, Ipoh, Malaysia) 400 mg daily or a placebo group which received placebo capsules (n = 28) for 12 months. HbA1c, renal parameters (i.e., serum creatinine, eGFR, and UACR), and serum biomarkers were collected at intervals of two months. Tocovid supplementation significantly reduced serum creatinine levels (MD: -4.28 ± 14.92 vs. 9.18 ± 24.96), p = 0.029, and significantly improved eGFR (MD: 1.90 ± 5.76 vs. -3.29 ± 9.24), p = 0.011 after eight months. Subgroup analysis of 37 patients with stage 3 CKD demonstrated persistent renoprotective effects over 12 months; Tocovid improved eGFR (MD: 4.83 ± 6.78 vs. -1.45 ± 9.18), p = 0.022 and serum creatinine (MD: -7.85(20.75) vs. 0.84(26.03), p = 0.042) but not UACR. After six months post washout, there was no improvement in serum creatinine and eGFR. There were no significant changes in the serum biomarkers, TGF-β1 and VEGF-A. Our findings verified the results from the pilot phase study where tocotrienol-rich vitamin E supplementation at two and three months improved kidney function as assessed by serum creatinine and eGFR but not UACR.

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Application of Partial Hydrogenation for the Generation of Minor Tocochromanol Homologs and Functional Evaluation of Hydrogenated Tocotrienol-rich Vitamin E Oil in Diabetic Obese Mice

Fumiaki Beppu, Aimi Sakuma, Satoshi Kasatani, Yoshinori Aoki, Naohiro Gotoh

J Oleo Sci . 2021;70(1):103-112. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess20233.

Abstract

Recent research has identified minor homologs of vitamin E with one or two double bonds in the side-chain, namely tocomonoenol (T1) and tocodienol (T2), in natural products. We first explored the effectiveness of partial hydrogenation for generating minor tocochromanols from tocotrienol (T3). During hydrogenation with pure α-T3 as a substrate, the side-chain was partially saturated in a time-dependent manner, and a large amount of α-T1 and α-T2 was obtained. To investigate the beneficial effects of the hydrogenated product, we fed diabetic obese KK-A y mice with a hydrogenated T3 mixture (HT3). Feeding HT3 revealed tissue-specific accumulation of tocochromanols, ameliorated hyperglycemia and improved ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol in serum, with invariant body weight and fat mass. Hence, we propose that hydrogenation is a useful method for generating T1 and T2 homologs, which can be applied to explore the structure-related function of tocochromanols.

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Study of vitamin E microencapsulation and controlled release from chitosan/sodium lauryl ether sulfate microcapsules

Jelena Milinković Budinčić, Lidija Petrović, Ljiljana Đekić, Jadranka Fraj, Sandra Bučko, Jaroslav Katona, Ljiljana Spasojević

Carbohydr Polym . 2021 Jan 1;251:116988. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116988. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Abstract

Potential benefit of microencapsulation is its ability to deliver and protect incorporated ingredients such as vitamin E. Microcapsule wall properties can be changed by adding of coss-linking agents that are usually considered toxic for application. The microcapsules were prepared by a spray-drying technique using coacervation method, by depositing the coacervate formed in the mixture of chitosan and sodium lauryl ether sulfate to the oil/water interface. All obtained microcapsules suspensions had slightly lower mean diameter compared to the starting emulsion (6.85 ± 0.213 μm), which shows their good stability during the drying process. The choice and absence of cross-linking agents had influence on kinetics of vitamin E release. Encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules without cross-linking agent was 73.17 ± 0.64 %. This study avoided the use of aldehydes as cross-linking agents and found that chitosan/SLES complex can be used as wall material for the microencapsulation of hydrophobic active molecules in cosmetic industry.

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Vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked polyethylene did not reduce the number of in vivo wear particles in total knee arthroplasty

Kumi Orita, Yukihide Minoda, Ryo Sugama, Yoichi Ohta, Hideki Ueyama, Susumu Takemura, Hiroaki Nakamura

Carbohydr Polym . 2021 Jan 1;251:116988. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116988. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Abstract

Aims: Vitamin E-infused highly cross-linked polyethylene (E1) has recently been introduced in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An in vitro wear simulator study showed that E1 reduced polyethylene wear. However there is no published information regarding in vivo wear. Previous reports suggest that newly introduced materials which reduce in vitro polyethylene wear do not necessarily reduce in vivo polyethylene wear. To assist in the evaluation of the newly introduced material before widespread use, we established an in vivo polyethylene wear particle analysis for TKA. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo polyethylene wear particle generation between E1 and conventional polyethylene (ArCom) in TKA.

Methods: A total of 34 knees undergoing TKA (17 each with ArCom or E1) were investigated. Except for the polyethylene insert material, the prostheses used for both groups were identical. Synovial fluid was obtained at a mean of 3.4 years (SD 1.3) postoperatively. The in vivo polyethylene wear particles were isolated from the synovial fluid using a previously validated method and examined by scanning electron microscopy.

Results: The total number of polyethylene wear particles obtained from the knees with E1 (mean 6.9, SD 4.0 × 107 counts/knee) was greater than that obtained from those with ArCom (mean 2.2, SD 2.6 × 107 counts/knee) (p = 0.001). The particle size (equivalent circle of diameter) from the knees with E1 was smaller (mean 0.5 μm, SD 0.1) than that of knees with ArCom (mean 1.5, SD 0.3 μm) (p = 0.001). The aspect ratio of particles from the knees with E1 (mean 1.3, SD 0.1) was smaller than that with ArCom (mean 1.4, SD 0.1) (p < 0.001 ).

Conclusion: This is the first report of in vivo wear particle analysis of E1. E1 polyethylene did not reduce the number of in vivo polyethylene wear particles compared with ArCom in early clinical stage. Further careful follow-up of newly introduced E1 for TKA should be carried out. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1527-1534.

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Involvement of miR-190b in Xbp1 mRNA Splicing upon Tocotrienol Treatment

Roberto Ambra, Sonia Manca, Guido Leoni, Barbara Guantario, Raffaella Canali, Raffaella Comitato

Molecules . 2020 Dec 31;26(1):163. doi: 10.3390/molecules26010163.

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that apoptosis induced by tocotrienols (γ and δT3) in HeLa cells is preceded by Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This event is eventually followed by the induction of specific calcium-dependent signals, leading to the expression and activation of the gene encoding for the IRE1α protein and, in turn, to the alternative splicing of the pro-apoptotic protein sXbp1 and other molecules involved in the unfolded protein response, the core pathway coping with EndoR stress. Here, we showed that treatment with T3s induces the expression of a specific set of miRNAs in HeLa cells. Data interrogation based on the intersection of this set of miRNAs with a set of genes previously differentially expressed after γT3 treatment provided a few miRNA candidates to be the effectors of EndoR-stress-induced apoptosis. To identify the best candidate to act as the effector of the Xbp1-mediated apoptotic response to γT3, we performed in silico analysis based on the evaluation of the highest ∆ in Gibbs energy of different mRNA-miRNA-Argonaute (AGO) protein complexes. The involvement of the best candidate identified in silico, miR-190b, in Xbp1 splicing was confirmed in vitro using T3-treated cells pre-incubated with the specific miRNA inhibitor, providing a preliminary indication of its role as an effector of EndoR-stress-induced apoptosis.

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Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Vitamin E: Nanoformulations to Enhance Bioavailability

Anis Syauqina Mohd Zaffarin, Shiow-Fern Ng, Min Hwei Ng, Haniza Hassan, Ekram Alias

Int J Nanomedicine . 2020 Dec 8;15:9961-9974. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S276355. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Vitamin E belongs to the family of lipid-soluble vitamins and can be divided into two groups, tocopherols and tocotrienols, with four isomers (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). Although vitamin E is widely known as a potent antioxidant, studies have also revealed that vitamin E possesses anti-inflammatory properties. These crucial properties of vitamin E are beneficial in various aspects of health, especially in neuroprotection and cardiovascular, skin and bone health. However, the poor bioavailability of vitamin E, especially tocotrienols, remains a great limitation for clinical applications. Recently, nanoformulations that include nanovesicles, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles have shown promising outcomes in improving the efficacy and bioavailability of vitamin E. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics of vitamin E and current advances in vitamin E nanoformulations for future clinical applications. The limitations and future recommendations are also discussed in this review.

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Synthesis of [ 18 F]F-γ-T-3, a Redox-Silent γ-Tocotrienol (γ-T-3) Vitamin E Analogue for Image-Based In Vivo Studies of Vitamin E Biodistribution and Dynamics

Peter Roselt, Carleen Cullinane, Wayne Noonan, Hassan Elsaidi, Peter Eu, Leonard I Wiebe

Molecules . 2020 Dec 3;25(23):5700. doi: 10.3390/molecules25235700.

Abstract

Vitamin E, a natural antioxidant, is of interest to scientists, health care pundits and faddists; its nutritional and biomedical attributes may be validated, anecdotal or fantasy. Vitamin E is a mixture of tocopherols (TPs) and tocotrienols (T-3s), each class having four substitutional isomers (α-, β-, γ-, δ-). Vitamin E analogues attain only low concentrations in most tissues, necessitating exacting invasive techniques for analytical research. Quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with an F-18-labeled molecular probe would expedite access to Vitamin E’s biodistributions and pharmacokinetics via non-invasive temporal imaging. (R)-6-(3-[18F]Fluoropropoxy)-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl)-chromane ([18F]F-γ-T-3) was prepared for this purpose. [18F]F-γ-T-3 was synthesized from γ-T-3 in two steps: (i) 1,3-di-O-tosylpropane was introduced at C6-O to form TsO-γ-T-3, and (ii) reaction of this tosylate with [18F]fluoride in DMF/K222. Non-radioactive F-γ-T-3 was synthesized by reaction of γ-T-3 with 3-fluoropropyl methanesulfonate. [18F]F-γ-T-3 biodistribution in a murine tumor model was imaged using a small-animal PET scanner. F-γ-T-3 was prepared in 61% chemical yield. [18F]F-γ-T-3 was synthesized in acceptable radiochemical yield (RCY 12%) with high radiochemical purity (>99% RCP) in 45 min. Preliminary F-18 PET images in mice showed upper abdominal accumulation with evidence of renal clearance, only low concentrations in the thorax (lung/heart) and head, and rapid clearance from blood. [18F]F-γ-T-3 shows promise as an F-18 PET tracer for detailed in vivo studies of Vitamin E. The labeling procedure provides acceptable RCY, high RCP and pertinence to all eight Vitamin E analogues.

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