Preparation and Evaluation Pumpkin Seed Oil-based Vitamin E Cream Formulations for Topical Application

Ong TS, Chu CC1 Tan CP, Nyam KL

J Oleo Sci. 2020;69(4):297-306. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess19250.


Plant seed oil is often incorporated into the cream emulsions to provide multifunctional effects on the skin. In the current study, pumpkin seed oil (PSO) was used to develop a stable oil-in-water emulsion. The study aimed to optimise PSO cream formulation and determine the synergistic effect of the PSO with vitamin E oil added. The physical properties, antioxidant activities and storage stability of the formulations were analysed. Besides, the synergistic effect of the best formulation was analysed based on α-tocopherol content using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The storage stability test was assessed upon storing at 25 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C for 12 weeks. The best formulation (20% PSO, vitamin E oil and beeswax) selected showed physically and microbiologically stable. The incorporation of vitamin E oil into the formulation produced with PSO was found to be compatible, as it showed a synergistic effect in the amount of α-tocopherol content (combination index (CI) = 0.98). Thus, PSO had shown its potency to be incorporated into the topical products with a promising potential in delivering additional properties that can nourish the skin.

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Tuning mPEG-PLA/vitamin E-TPGS-based Mixed Micelles for Combined Celecoxib/Honokiol Therapy for Breast Cancer

Jiahui Sun, Jing Li, Qi Liu, Min Jiang, Mengjia Yang, Siwen Zhan, Tong Qiu, Kaiyong He, Xueqiong Zhang

Eur J Pharm Sci . 2020 Apr 15;146:105277. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105277. Epub 2020 Feb 24.


This study aimed to develop, evaluate, and optimize the mPEG-PLA/vitamin E-TPGS mixed micelle drug delivery system to encapsulate celecoxib (CXB) and honokiol (HNK) for intravenous treatment of breast cancer. To this end, we formulated CXB-loaded mPEG-PLA/vitamin E-TPGS (PV-CXB) and HNK-loaded mPEG-PLA/vitamin E-TPGS (PV-HNK) mixed micelles and analyzed their characteristics. The 4T1 cell line was used for cytotoxicity determination and cellular uptake experiments, and for establishing a 4T1-bearing mouse model for histopathology, immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling, and Western blot analysis. The synergistic effects of PV-CXB and PV-HNK combination therapy were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the coefficient of drug interaction values. The mean size of PV-CXB and PV-HNK prepared with optimal formulation was approximately 50 nm, with a spherical shape. PV-CXB and PV-HNK combination therapy exhibited cytotoxicity in 4T1 cells in vitro. However, the toxicity of PV-CXB and PV-HNK combination therapy was not apparent in normal tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney) in vivo and reduced the expression of collagen fibers in tumor tissues. Moreover, the combination therapy reduced the expression of tumor growth biomarkers (Foxp3, CD4, Gr-1, CD11b, CD31, Ki67, FoxM1, and VEGF). In addition, the tumor cell apoptosis rate reached 45.71 ± 0.62%. The combined treatment with PV-CXB and PV-HNK showed synergistic effect both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the PV-CXB and PV-HNK drug delivery system could be used as a potential combination therapy for breast cancer .

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Nutrient intakes and medication use in elderly individuals with and without dry mouths

Lee KA, Park JC, Park YK

Nutr Res Pract. 2020 Apr;14(2):143-151. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2020.14.2.143. Epub 2019 Dec 13.



The nutrition of the elderly depends on various factors. Oral health, especially oral dryness, can be an important risk factor. In this study, we attempted to determine whether dry mouth is associated with compromised nutrient intakes.


A total of 120 participants aged 65-86 yrs (mean age: 69 ± 1 y) were included in this study. Demographic and health-related characteristics, living status, meals, number of medications, medical conditions, chewing ability, and quality of life, the Oral Health Impact Profile (the OHIP-14) were assessed. We performed one day 24-hr recall assessment for nutrient analyses. The differences of the means between the dry-mouth and non-dry-mouth groups were analyzed. Elderly subjects with xerostomia-induced dry mouth were classified as those who reported at least one dryness symptom on a questionnaire.


A significant difference in population distribution was observed among the elderly who took medications for hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis and was significantly higher in the dry-mouth group (70.2%) than in the non-dry-mouth group (44.4%) (P = 0.005). Compared with the non-dry-mouth group (50.8%), a significantly higher proportion (73.7%) of participants in the dry-mouth group took multiple medicines (≥ 4 medications) (P = 0.019). The intakes of vegetable fat, vitamin E, folate and water in the dry-mouth group were lower than in the non-dry-mouth group. The intakes of fluoride and ω-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in the dry-mouth group than in the non-dry-mouth group.


The participants in the dry-mouth group exhibited low nutrient and water intakes. It is recommended that the elderly with dry mouth should drink sufficient water and receive targeted and specific nutritional guidance to prevent malnutrition.

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Chemical Composition, Oxidative Stability, and Antioxidant Activity of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Wild Leek) Seed Oil

Nehdi IA, Sbihi HM, Tan CP, Al-Resayes SI, Rashid U, Al-Misned FA, El-Serehy HA

J Oleo Sci. 2020 Apr 13. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess19298. [Epub ahead of print]


Allium ampeloprasum L., commonly known as wild leek, is an edible vegetable that has been cultivated for centuries. However, no detailed studies have been undertaken to valorize A. ampeloprasum seed oil. This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity of A. ampeloprasum seed oil. The seed oil content was found to be 18.20%. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that linoleic acid (71.65%) was the dominant acid, followed by oleic acid (14.11%) and palmitic acid (7.11%). A. ampeloprasum seed oil exhibited an oxidative stability of 5.22 h. Moreover, γ- and δ-tocotrienols were the major tocols present (79.56 and 52.08 mg/100 g oil, respectively). The total flavonoid content (16.64 µg CE /g oil) and total phenolic content (62.96 µg GAE /g oil) of the seed oil were also determined. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as evaluated using the ABTS assay (136.30 µM TEAC/g oil), was found to be significant. These findings indicate that A. ampeloprasum seeds can be regarded as a new source of edible oil having health benefits and nutritional properties.

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Vitamin E Improves Antioxidant Status but Not Lipid Metabolism in Laying Hens Fed a Aged Corn-Containing Diet

X M Ding, Y D Mu, K Y Zhang, J P Wang, S P Bai, Q F Zeng, H W Peng

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci . 2020 Apr 12. doi: 10.5713/ajas.19.0934.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary vitamin E (VE) supplement could alleviate any detrimental effects of aged corn on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in laying hens.

Methods: The experiment consisted of a 2 × 3 factorial design with two corn types (normal corn and aged corn (stored for 4 yr) and three concentrations of VE (0, 20 and 100 IU/kg). A total of 216 Lohmann laying hens (50 wk of age) were randomly allocated into six treatment diets for 12 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 6 hens per replicate.

Results: The results show that aged corn significantly decreased the content of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P< 0.05), and reduced chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) mRNA expression (P< 0.05) in the liver compared to controls. Diet with VE did not alter the content of crude fat and cholesterol (P> 0.05), or acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) or CMKLR1 mRNA expression (P> 0.05) in the liver among treatment groups. Aged corn significantly increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P< 0.05) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P< 0.05) in the liver. VE increased the content of MDA (P< 0.05) but decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in serum (P< 0.01) and in the ovaries (P< 0.05). Adding VE at 20 and 100 IU/kg significantly increased GSH-PX activity (P< 0.05) in liver and in serum (P< 0.01), 100 IU/kg VE significantly increased SOD activity (P< 0.05) in serum. Aged corn had no significant effects on GSH-PX mRNA or SOD mRNA expression (P< 0.01) in the liver and ovaries. Addition of 100 IU/kg VE could significantly increase SOD mRNA expression (P< 0.01) in the liver and ovary.

Conclusion: Aged corn affected lipid metabolism and decreased the antioxidant function of laying hens. Dietary VE supplementation was unable to counteract the negative effects of aged corn on lipid metabolism. However, addition of 100 IU/kg VE prevented aged corn-induced lipid peroxidation in the organs of laying hens.

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Trace elements homeostasis in brain exposed to 900 MHz RFW emitted from a BTS-antenna model and the protective role of vitamin E

Azimzadeh M, Jelodar G

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2020 Apr 12. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13360. [Epub ahead of print]


Advances in telecommunication and their broad usage in the community have become a great concern from the health aspect. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of exposure to 900 MHz RFW on brain Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Manganese (Mn) concentration, and the protective role of pre-treatment of vitamin E on mentioned elements homoeostasis. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) randomly were divided into four groups. Control group (without any exposure, received distilled water), treatment control group (orally received 250 mg/kg BW/d vitamin E), treatment group (received 250 mg/kg BW/d vitamin E and exposed to 900 MHz RFW) and sham-exposed group (exposed to 900 MHz RFW). Animals (with freely moving in the cage) were exposed to RFW for 30 consecutive days (4 hr/day). The levels of the above mentioned elements in the brain tissue were determined on the last day using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Exposure to 900 MHz RFW induced a significant increase in the Fe, Cu, Mn levels and Cu/Zn ratio accompanied by a significant decrease in Zn level in the sham-exposed group compare to control group. Vitamin E pre-treatment improved the level of Fe, Cu, Mn and Cu/Zn ratio, except in the Zn concentration. Exposure to 900 MHz RFW caused disrupted trace elements homoeostasis in the brain tissue and administration of vitamin E as an antioxidant and neuroprotective agent improved the situation.

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Supplementation of L-Arginine, L-Glutamine, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Folic Acid, and Green Tea Extract Enhances Serum Nitric Oxide Content and Antifatigue Activity in Mice

Yi-Ming Chen, Huashuai Li, Yen-Shuo Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang, Wen-Chyuan Chen

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med . 2020 Apr 11;2020:8312647. doi: 10.1155/2020/8312647. eCollection 2020


It has been reported that abundant nitric oxide content in endothelial cells can increase exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a combined extract comprising L-arginine, L-glutamine, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, and green tea extract (LVFG) on nitric oxide content to decrease exercise fatigue. Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and orally administered LVFG for 4 weeks. The 4-week LVFG supplementation significantly increased serum nitric oxide content in the LVFG-1X and LVFG-2X groups. Antifatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming test, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute swimming exercise. LVFG supplementation dose-dependently improved exercise performance and nitric oxide content, and it dose-dependently decreased serum ammonia and CK activity after exhaustive swimming test. LVFG’s antifatigue properties appear to manifest by preserving energy storage (as blood glucose) and increasing nitric oxide content. Taken together, our results show that LVFG could have the potential for alleviating physical fatigue due to its pharmacological effect of increasing serum nitric oxide content.

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Colostrum supplementation with n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol alters plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and decreases an indicator of oxidative stress in newborn calves

Opgenorth J, Sordillo LM, VandeHaar MJ

J Dairy Sci. 2020 Apr;103(4):3545-3553. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-17380. Epub 2020 Jan 3


Our objective was to characterize the effects of supplementing newborn calves with n-3 fatty acids (FA) and α-tocopherol on blood lipid profiles and oxidant status in early life. Sixteen calves received 0 or 60 mL of 1:1 fish and flaxseed oil with 200 mg of α-tocopherol in 2.8 L of colostrum within 6 h after birth. Colostrum was >22% on the Brix scale. Blood was sampled on d 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 after birth for assessment of plasma polyunsaturated FA, α-tocopherol, total serum protein, and oxidant status index, an indirect indicator of oxidative stress that examines the balance between the concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and antioxidant capacity in serum. Health was observed daily. Weight and hip height were recorded at birth, 3 wk, and 8 wk. Data were analyzed with a Mixed procedure of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Treatment did not alter concentration of total protein in blood serum, prevalence of diarrhea or other signs of disease, or rate of growth. Feeding n-3 FA and α-tocopherol increased plasma concentrations of the n-3 FA, including α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, with a concomitant decrease in oxidant status index during the first week of life. Concentrations of α-tocopherol decreased with supplementation, but all calves maintained adequate concentrations. Oxidant status index of treated calves returned to the level of control calves by d 14. We conclude that a colostrum supplement of n-3 FA and α-tocopherol is safe to administer to newborn calves, reduces oxidant status in the first week of life, and may improve health and performance.

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Alpha-tocopherol exerts protective function against the mucotoxicity of particulate matter in amphibian and human goblet cells

Yang HS, Sim HJ, Cho H, Bang WY, Kim HE, Kwon TK, Kwon T, Park TJ

Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 10;10(1):6224. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63085-6.


Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disorders and mortality. The cytotoxicity of PM is mainly due to the abnormal increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage cellular components such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. The correlation between PM exposure and human disorders, including mortality, is based on long-term exposure. In this study we have investigated acute responses of mucus-secreting goblet cells upon exposure to PM derived from a heavy diesel engine. To this end, we employed the mucociliary epithelium of amphibian embryos and human Calu-3 cells to examine PM mucotoxicity. Our data suggest that acute exposure to PM significantly impairs mucus secretion and results in the accumulation of mucus vesicles in the cytoplasm of goblet cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that acute responses to PM exposure significantly altered gene expression patterns; however, known regulators of mucus production and the secretory pathway were not significantly altered. Interestingly, pretreatment with α-tocopherol nearly recovered the hyposecretion of mucus from both amphibian and human goblet cells. We believe this study demonstrates the mucotoxicity of PM and the protective function of α-tocopherol on mucotoxicity caused by acute PM exposure from heavy diesel engines.

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The Effect of Vitamin Supplementation on Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients without Manifest Cardiovascular Diseases: Never-ending Hope or Underestimated Effect?

Mitu O, Cirneala IA, Lupsan AI, Iurciuc M4, Mitu I, Dimitriu DC, Costache AD, Petris AO, Costache II

Molecules. 2020 Apr 9;25(7). pii: E1717. doi: 10.3390/molecules25071717.


Micronutrients, especially vitamins, play an important role in the evolution of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been speculated that additional intake of vitamins may reduce the CVD burden by acting on the inflammatory and oxidative response starting from early stages of atherosclerosis, when the vascular impairment might still be reversible or, at least, slowed down. The current review assesses the role of major vitamins on subclinical atherosclerosis process and the potential clinical implications in patients without CVD. We have comprehensively examined the literature data for the major vitamins: A, B group, C, D, and E, respectively. Most data are based on vitamin E, D and C supplementation, while vitamins A and B have been scarcely examined for the subclinical atherosclerosis action. Though the fundamental premise was optimistic, the up-to-date trials with vitamin supplementation revealed divergent results on subclinical atherosclerosis improvement, both in healthy subjects and patients with CVD, while the long-term effect seems minimal. Thus, there are no conclusive data on the prevention and progression of atherosclerosis based on vitamin supplementation. However, given their enormous potential, future trials are certainly needed for a more tailored CVD prevention focusing on early stages as subclinical atherosclerosis.

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