Preparation of Vitamin E-Containing High-Density Lipoprotein and Its Protective Efficacy on Macrophages

Su M, Wang D, Chang W, Liu L, Cui M, Xu T

Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2018 Feb 22. doi: 10.1089/adt.2017.831. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a major cause for cardiovascular diseases. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) may reduce atherosclerosis through several different mechanisms. HDL is composed of lipids, cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine plus specialized proteins called apolipoproteins (apos). In this study, we prepared vitamin E containing HDL (VE-HDL) that contains egg phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, vitamin E, and two kinds of recombinant human apolipoproteins (rhapo)-rhapoA-I and rhapoE in vitro by the facilitation of cholate. After that, we studied the effects of VE-HDL on foam cell formation, cellular cholesterol efflux, oxidative low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated oxidative stress, and apoptosis of macrophages to evaluate the protective efficacy of VE-HDL on macrophages. As the results showed, we prepared a new type of reconstituent HDL with apolipoproteins and vitamin E for the first time. VE-HDL has protective efficacy on macrophages. It has the prospect of becoming a therapeutic agent on atherosclerosis in the future.

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Tocotrienols: the unsaturated sidekick shifting new paradigms in vitamin E therapeutics.

Kanchi MM, Shanmugam MK, Rane G, Sethi G, Kumar AP

Drug Discov Today. 2017 Aug 5. pii: S1359-6446(17)30137-X. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2017.08.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Vitamin E family members: tocotrienols and tocopherols are widely known for their health benefits. Decades of research on tocotrienols have shown they have diverse biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective and skin protection benefits, as well as improved cognition, bone health, longevity and reduction of cholesterol levels in plasma. Tocotrienols also modulate several intracellular molecular targets and, most importantly, have been shown to improve lipid profiles, reduce total cholesterol and reduce the volume of white matter lesions in human clinical trials. This review provides a comprehensive update on the little-known therapeutic potentials of tocotrienols, which tocopherols lack in a variety of inflammation-driven diseases.

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Vitamin E and caloric restriction promote hepatic homeostasis through expression of connexin 26, N-cad, E-cad and cholesterol metabolism genes.

Santolim LV, Amaral ME, Fachi JL, Mendes MF, Oliveira CA.

J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Jan;39:86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2016.09.011. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Abstract

Connexins (Cx) and cadherins are responsible for cell homeostasis. The Cx activity is directly related to cholesterol. The present work investigates whether vitamin E, with or without caloric restriction (CR), alters the mRNA expression of Cx26, Cx32, Cx43, N-cadherins (N-cads), E-cadherins (E-cads) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and evaluates their relation to cholesterol metabolism in rat liver. Animals were divided into different groups: control with ad libitum diet (C), control+vitamin E (CV), aloric restriction with intake to 60% of group C (CR), and the intake of group CR+vitamin E (RV). There were increases of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and glutathione S-transferase mu 1, indicating antioxidant effects of CR and vitamin E. An increase of nitric oxide in the CR group was in agreement with the Mn-SOD data. Supplementation with vitamin E, with or without CR, upregulated the expression of Cx26 mRNA and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in the CV group. Reductions of Cx32 and Cx43 were associated with lower LDL-c. Increases in Hmgcr and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in the CV and RV groups could be explained by the effect of vitamin E. A reduction of LDLr in the CR group was due to the reduced dietary intake. Increases in cadherins in the CV, CR and RV groups were indicative of tissue maintenance, which was also supported by increases of α-SMA in groups CV and RV. Finally, vitamin E, with or without CR, increased Cx26, probably modulated by expression of the Hmgcr and LDLr genes. This suggests important relationship of Cxs and cholesterol metabolism genes.

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Transcriptome profiling of equine vitamin E deficient neuroaxonal dystrophy identifies upregulation of liver X receptor target genes.

Finno CJ, Bordbari MH, Valberg SJ, Lee D, Herron J, Hines K, Monsour T, Scott E, Bannasch DL, Mickelson J, Xu L.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Dec;101:261-271. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Abstract

Specific spontaneous heritable neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with lower serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-tocopherol (α-TOH) concentrations. Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy (eNAD) has similar histologic lesions to human ataxia with vitamin E deficiency caused by mutations in the α-TOH transfer protein gene (TTPA). Mutations in TTPA are not present with eNAD and the molecular basis remains unknown. Given the neuropathologic phenotypic similarity of the conditions, we assessed the molecular basis of eNAD by global transcriptome sequencing of the cervical spinal cord. Differential gene expression analysis identified 157 significantly (FDR<0.05) dysregulated transcripts within the spinal cord of eNAD-affected horses. Statistical enrichment analysis identified significant downregulation of the ionotropic and metabotropic group III glutamate receptor, synaptic vesicle trafficking and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Gene co-expression analysis identified one module of upregulated genes significantly associated with the eNAD phenotype that included the liver X receptor (LXR) targets CYP7A1, APOE, PLTP and ABCA1. Validation of CYP7A1 and APOE dysregulation was performed in an independent biologic group and CYP7A1 was found to be additionally upregulated in the medulla oblongata of eNAD horses. Evidence of LXR activation supports a role for modulation of oxysterol-dependent LXR transcription factor activity by tocopherols. We hypothesize that the protective role of α-TOH in eNAD may reside in its ability to prevent oxysterol accumulation and subsequent activation of the LXR in order to decrease lipid peroxidation associated neurodegeneration.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ down-regulation mediates the inhibitory effect of d-δ-tocotrienol on the differentiation of murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes.

Torabi S, Yeganehjoo H, Shen CL, Mo H.

Nutr Res. 2016 Nov 3. pii: S0271-5317(16)30204-4. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.11.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Tocotrienols accelerate the degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of mevalonate; the latter is essential for preadipocyte differentiation. Tocotrienols also down-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that mevalonate deprivation and PPARγ down-regulation mediate d-δ-tocotrienol-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of d-δ-tocotrienol on 3T3-F442A preadipocyte differentiation and the involvement of PPARγ and mevalonate. Murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes were incubated with d-δ-tocotrienol (2.5-10 μmol/L) for 8 days. AdipoRed assay and Oil Red O staining showed that d-δ-tocotrienol dose-dependently reduced the intracellular triglyceride content. Concomitantly, d-δ-tocotrienol dose-dependently inhibited glucose uptake by 3T3-F442A cells and the expression of GLUT4, HMG CoA reductase, and p-Akt proteins. The effects of d-δ-tocotrienol on intracellular triglyceride content and glucose uptake were attenuated by rosiglitazone, an agonist of PPARγ, but not supplemental mevalonate (100 μmol/L). In contrast, mevalonate, but not rosiglitazone, reversed the effects of lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation via mevalonate deprivation. Trypan blue staining revealed no changes in cell viability after a 48-hour incubation of 3T3-F442A cells with d-δ-tocotrienol (0-80 μmol/L), suggesting that the adipogenesis-suppressive activity of d-δ-tocotrienol was independent of cytotoxicity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the antiadipogenic effect of d-δ-tocotrienol via PPARγ down-regulation.

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Transcriptome profiling of equine vitamin E deficient neuroaxonal dystrophy identifies upregulation of liver X receptor target genes.

Finno CJ, Bordbari MH, Valberg SJ, Lee D, Herron J, Hines K, Monsour T, Scott E, Bannasch DL, Mickelson J, Xu L.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Oct 15;101:261-271. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.10.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Specific spontaneous heritable neurodegenerative diseases have been associated with lower serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-tocopherol (α-TOH) concentrations. Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy (eNAD) has similar histologic lesions to human ataxia with vitamin E deficiency caused by mutations in the α-TOH transfer protein gene (TTPA). Mutations in TTPA are not present with eNAD and the molecular basis remains unknown. Given the neuropathologic phenotypic similarity of the conditions, we assessed the molecular basis of eNAD by global transcriptome sequencing of the cervical spinal cord. Differential gene expression analysis identified 157 significantly (FDR<0.05) dysregulated transcripts within the spinal cord of eNAD-affected horses. Statistical enrichment analysis identified significant downregulation of the ionotropic and metabotropic group III glutamate receptor, synaptic vesicle trafficking and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Gene co-expression analysis identified one module of upregulated genes significantly associated with the eNAD phenotype that included the liver X receptor (LXR) targets CYP7A1, APOE, PLTP and ABCA1. Validation of CYP7A1 and APOE dysregulation was performed in an independent biologic group and CYP7A1 was found to be additionally upregulated in the medulla oblongata of eNAD horses. Evidence of LXR activation supports a role for modulation of oxysterol-dependent LXR transcription factor activity by tocopherols. We hypothesize that the protective role of α-TOH in eNAD may reside in its ability to prevent oxysterol accumulation and subsequent activation of the LXR in order to decrease lipid peroxidation associated neurodegeneration.

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Tocotrienol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases.

Chin KY, Pang KL, Soelaiman IN.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:97-130.

Abstract

Tocotrienol is a member of vitamin E family and is well-known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also a suppressor of mevalonate pathway responsible for cholesterol and prenylated protein synthesis. This review aimed to discuss the health beneficial effects of tocotrienol, specifically in preventing or treating hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and cancer with respect to these properties. Evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human studies has been examined. It is revealed that tocotrienolshows promising effects in preventing or treating the health conditions previously mentioned in in vivo and in vitro models. In some cases, alpha-tocopherol attenuates the biological activity of tocotrienol. Except for its cholesterol-lowering effects, data on the health-promoting effects of tocotrienol in human are limited. As a conclusion, the encouraging results on the health beneficial effects of tocotrienol should motivate researchers to explore its potential use in human.

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Establishment of reference values of α-tocopherol in plasma, red blood cells and adipose tissue in healthy children to improve the management of chylomicron retention disease, a rare genetic hypocholesterolemia.

Cuerq C, Restier L, Drai J, Blond E, Roux A, Charriere S, Michalski MC, Di Filippo M, Levy E, Lachaux A, Peretti N.

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 Aug 12;11(1):114. doi: 10.1186/s13023-016-0498-8.

Abstract

Chylomicron retention disease (CMRD), a rare genetic hypocholesterolemia, results in neuro-ophtalmologic damages, which can be prevented by high doses of vitamin E during infancy. In these patients, plasma vitamin E concentration is significantly reduced due to defects of chylomicron secretion. Vitamin E in adipose tissue (AT) and red blood cells (RBC) have been proposed as potential relevant biomarkers of vitamin E status but no reference values in children are available. The objectives were (i) to establish age-reference intervals in healthy children for α-tocopherol in plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and adipose tissue (AT) and (ii) to determine the variations of α-tocopherol in patients with CMRD after oral treatment with vitamin E. Summary, this study establishes pediatric reference intervals for α-tocopherol in plasma, RBC and AT. These values will be beneficial in assessing accurate α-tocopherol status in children and to optimize the monitoring of rare diseases such as CMRD. Our data suggest that RBC α-tocopherol, appears as a relevant biomarker to appreciate the effectiveness of treatment with α-tocopherol in patients with a rare primary hypocholesterolemia. The biopsy of AT could be used at diagnosis to assess the severity of the vitamin Edeficiency and periodically after a long duration of vitamin E therapy to assess whether the treatment is effective, based on reference intervals defined in this study.

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α-Tocopherol Attenuates the Triglyceride- and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Rice Bran Tocotrienol in Rats Fed a Western Diet.

Shibata A, Kawakami Y, Kimura T, Miyazawa T, Nakagawa K.

J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jul 6;64(26):5361-6. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02228.

Abstract

Previous studies demonstrated the ability of tocotrienol (T3) to lower levels of lipids, including cholesterol (Cho) and triglycerides (TG). Although α-tocopherol (α-Toc) reportedly inhibits the hypocholesterolemic effect of T3, there is no information about whether α-Toc influences the TG-lowering effect of T3 in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of α-Toc on the antihyperlipidemic effects (Cho- and TG-lowering) of rice bran tocotrienols (RBT3) in F344 rats fed a western diet. α-Toc attenuated both the Cho- and TG-lowering effects of RBT3 in vivo, whereas α-Toc alone exhibited no hypolipidemic effects. RBT3-induced Cpt-1a and Cyp7a1 gene expression was reduced by α-Toc. Furthermore, coadministration of α-Toc decreased liver and adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in F344 rats. These results indicate that α-Toc has almost no antihyperlipidemic effect in vivo, but abrogates the antihyperlipidemic effect of RBT3 by reducing tissue concentrations of tocotrienols and regulating expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Understanding the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of T3 on lipid metabolism and the interaction with α-Toc will be important for developing T3-based therapeutics.

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Vitamin E therapy beyond cancer: Tocopherol versus tocotrienol.

Peh HY, Tan WS, Liao W, Wong WS.

Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jun;162:152-69. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.12.003. Review.

Abstract

The discovery of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) began in 1922 as a vital component required in reproduction. Today, there are eight naturally occurring vitamin E isoforms, namely α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol. Vitamin E is potent antioxidants, capable of neutralizing free radicals directly by donating hydrogen from its chromanol ring. α-Tocopherol is regarded the dominant form in vitamin E as the α-tocopherol transfer protein in the liver binds mainly α-tocopherol, thus preventing its degradation. That contributed to the oversight of tocotrienols and resulted in less than 3% of all vitamin E publications studying tocotrienols. Nevertheless, tocotrienols have been shown to possess superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties over α-tocopherol. In particular, inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase to lower cholesterol, attenuating inflammation via downregulation of transcription factor NF-κB activation, and potent radioprotectant against radiation damage are some properties unique to tocotrienols, not tocopherols. Aside from cancer, vitamin E has also been shown protective in bone, cardiovascular, eye, nephrological and neurological diseases. In light of the different pharmacological properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols, it becomes critical to specify which vitamin E isoform(s) are being studied in any future vitamin E publications. This review provides an update on vitamin E therapeutic potentials, protective effects and modes of action beyond cancer, with comparison of tocopherols against tocotrienols. With the concerted efforts in synthesizing novel vitamin E analogs and clinical pharmacology of vitamin E, it is likely that certain vitamin E isoform(s) will be therapeutic agents against human diseases besides cancer.

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