Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

Tintino SR, Morais-Tintino CD, Campina FF, Pereira RL, Costa Mdo S, Braga MF, Limaverde PW, Andrade JC, Siqueira-Junior JP, Coutinho HD, Balbino VQ, Leal-Balbino TC, Ribeiro-Filho J, Quintans-Júnior LJ.

EXCLI J. 2016 Apr 29;15:315-22. doi: 10.17179/excli2016-277.

Abstract

Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure.

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γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.

Abdala-Valencia H, Soveg F, Cook-Mills JM.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 Apr 15;310(8):L759-71. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00301.2015.

Abstract

γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherolaugments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b(+) subsets of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherolincreased the number of fetal liver CD11b(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins.

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Tocotrienol and cancer metastasis.

De Silva L, Chuah LH, Meganathan P, Fu JY.

Biofactors. 2016 Mar-Apr;42(2):149-62. doi: 10.1002/biof.1259. Review.

Abstract

Tumor metastasis involves some of the most complex and dynamic processes in cancer, often leading to poor quality of life and inevitable death. The search for therapeutic compounds and treatment strategies to prevent and/or manage metastasis is the ultimate challenge to fight cancer. In the past two decades, research focus on vitamin E has had a shift from saturated tocopherols to unsaturated tocotrienols (T3). Despite sharing structural similarities with tocopherols, T3 strive to gain scientific prominence due to their anti-cancer effects. Recent studies have shed some light on the anti-metastatic properties of T3. In this review, the roles of T3 in each step of the metastatic process are discussed. During the invasion process, signaling pathways that regulate the extracellular matrix and tumor cell motility have been reported to be modulated by T3. Although studies on T3 and tumor cell migration are fairly limited, they were shown to play a vital role in the suppression of angiogenesis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effect of T3 could be highly promising in the regulation of tumor microenvironment, which is crucial in supporting tumor growth in distant organs.

Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.

Hanson C, Lyden E, Furtado J, Campos H, Sparrow D, Vokonas P, Litonjua AA.

Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;35(1):169-74. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.01.020.

Abstract

The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In this study, there is a positive association between dietary vitamin E intake and lung function, and evidence of an inverse relationship between serum levels of γ-tocopherol and lung function.

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Is vitamin E an anti-allergic compound?

Caraffa AL, Varvara G, Spinas E, Kritas SK, Lessiani G, Ronconi G, Saggini A, Antinolfi P, Frydas I, De Tommaso Morrison MC, Conti P.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2016 Jan-Mar;30(1):11-5. Review.

Abstract

Vitamin E is found in eight forms in nature which include four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and four tocotrianols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). The classic effect of vitamin E is to reduce and prevent oxygen damage to the tissue and is useful for the treatment of pain, inflammation and allergic reactions. In addition to antioxidant activity, vitamin E also has a number of different and related functions. It protects against cancer, improves immune response, lowers the incidence of infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and is protective in allergy and asthma risk, and other disorders. Vitamin E increases n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreases n-3 PUFA, an effect that diminishes asthma and allergic diseases. Moreover, vitamin E regulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration through its oxidant and non-antioxidant effect. Furthermore, vitamin E modulates the endothelial function by altering VCAM-1-induced oxidative activation of endothelial cell PKCα. However, vitamin E is not consistently associated with asthma and/or allergy, and in some cases there are conflicting results on allergy and inflammatory diseases. The association of vitamin E and allergy appears to be very complex, and further study needs to clarify this dilemma.

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Suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome by γ-tocotrienol ameliorates type 2 diabetes.

Kim Y, Wang W, Okla M, Kang I, Moreau R, Chung S.

J Lipid Res. 2016 Jan;57(1):66-76. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M062828.

Abstract

The Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an intracellular sensor that sets off the innate immune system in response to microbial-derived and endogenous metabolic danger signals. We previously reported that γ-tocotrienol (γT3) attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity, but the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of γT3 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attendant consequences on type 2 diabetes. γT3 repressed inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleavage, and interleukin (IL) 1β secretion in murine macrophages, implicating the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome in the anti-inflammatory and antipyroptotic properties of γT3. Furthermore, supplementation of leptin-receptor KO mice with γT3 attenuated immune cell infiltration into adipose tissue, decreased circulating IL-18 levels, preserved pancreatic β-cells, and improved insulin sensitivity. Mechanistically, γT3 regulated the NLRP3 inflammasome via a two-pronged mechanism: 1) the induction of A20/TNF-α interacting protein 3 leading to the inhibition of the TNF receptor-associated factor 6/nuclear factor κB pathway and 2) the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase/autophagy axis leading to the attenuation of caspase-1 cleavage. Collectively, we demonstrated, for the first time, that γT3 inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome thereby delaying the progression of type 2 diabetes. This study also provides an insight into the novel therapeutic values of γT3 for treating NLRP3 inflammasome-associated chronic diseases.

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Vitamin E therapy beyond cancer: tocopherol versus tocotrienol.

Peh HY, Daniel Tan WS, Liao W, Fred Wong WS.

Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Dec 16. pii: S0163-7258(15)00229-6

Abstract

The discovery of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) began in 1922 as a vital component required in reproduction. Today, there are eight naturally occurring vitamin E isoforms, namely α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol. Vitamin E are potent antioxidants, capable of neutralizing free radicals directly by donating hydrogen from its chromanol ring. α-Tocopherol is regarded the dominant form in vitamin E as the α-tocopherol transfer protein in the liver binds mainly α-tocopherol, thus preventing its degradation. That contributed to the oversight of tocotrienols and resulted in less than 3% of all vitamin E publications studying tocotrienols. Nevertheless, tocotrienols have been shown to possess superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties over α-tocopherol. In particular, inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase to lower cholesterol, attenuating inflammation via downregulation of transcription factor NF-κB activation, and potent radioprotectant against radiation damage are some properties unique to tocotrienols, not tocopherols. Aside from cancer, vitamin E has also been shown protective in bone, cardiovascular, eye, nephrological and neurological diseases. In light of the different pharmacological properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols, it becomes critical to specify which vitamin E isoform(s) are being studied in any future vitamin E publications. This review provides an update on vitamin E therapeutic potentials, protective effects and modes of action beyond cancer, with comparison of tocopherols against tocotrienols. With the concerted efforts in synthesizing novel vitamin E analogues and clinical pharmacology of vitamin E, it is likely that certain vitamin E isoform(s) will be therapeutic agents against human diseases besides cancer.

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miR-429 mediates δ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting XIAP.

Wang C, Ju H, Shen C, Tong Z

Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Sep 15;8(9):15648-56.

Abstract

Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol has been reported to possess anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of δ-tocotrienol induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer are not fully understood. Here, we reported that microRNA-429 (miR-429) is up-regulated in two TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468), treated with δ-tocotrienol. Inhibition of miR-429 may partially rescue the apoptosis induced by δ-tocotrienol in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also showed that the forced expression of miR-429 was sufficient to lead to apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we identified X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) as one of miR-429’s target genes. These results suggest that the activation of miR-429 by δ-tocotrienol may be an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

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Vitamin E derivatives: a patent review (2010 – 2015).

Koufaki M.

Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2015 Oct 29:1-13

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The vitamin E family consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. α-Tocopherol is the most studied member of this family for its antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties, while tocotrienols have attracted recent research interest. The structural motifs of the vitamin E family and specifically the chroman moiety, are amenable to various modifications in order to improve their bioactivities towards numerous therapeutic targets. Areas covered: This review includes the patent literature from 2010 – 2015 related to vitamin E derivatives and it is focused on 2-, 5- or 6-substituted chroman analogues. The patent search was performed using Reaxys® and esp@cenet. Expert opinion: The chroman moiety of vitamin E is a privileged structure and an essential pharmacophore which inspired organic chemists to synthesize new analogues with improved bioactivities. Modifications at the 2- and 5- positions of the chroman ring resulted in very interesting active compounds in cellular and animal models of diseases related to oxidative stress. More recent publications and patents reported 6-substituted chromans as anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, an emerging interest is observed towards the use of vitamin E analogues incorporated in drug delivery systems and for medical imaging as contrast agents or fluorescent probes.

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Preventive Effects of Tocotrienol on Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Its Relation to Oxidative and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

Nur Azlina MF, Kamisah Y, Chua KH, Ibrahim IA, Qodriyah HM.

PLoS One. 2015 Oct 14;10(10):e0139348.

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the possible gastroprotective effect of tocotrienol against water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) induced gastric ulcers in rats by measuring its effect on gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) orally. After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours once. Malondialdehyde (MDA), NO content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were assayed in gastric tissue homogenates. Gastric tissue SOD, iNOS, TNF-α and IL1-β expression were measured. WIRS increased the gastric MDA, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels significantly when compared to the non-stressed control group. Administration of tocotrienol and omeprazole displayed significant protection against gastric ulcers induced by exposure to WIRS by correction of both ulcer score and MDA content. Tissue content of TNF-α and SOD activity were markedly reduced by the treatment with tocotrienol but not omeprazole. Tocotrienol significantly corrected nitrite to near normal levels and attenuated iNOS gene expression, which was upregulated in this ulcer model. In conclusion, oral supplementation with tocotrienol provides a gastroprotective effect in WIRS-induced ulcers. Gastroprotection is mediated through 1) free radical scavenging activity, 2) the increase in gastric mucosal antioxidant enzyme activity, 3) normalisation of gastric mucosal NO through reduction of iNOS expression, and 4) attenuation of inflammatory cytokines. In comparison to omeprazole, it exerts similar effectiveness but has a more diverse mechanism of protection, particularly through its effect on NO, SOD activity, and TNF-α.

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